Impact of Internet Gambling

November 20, 2015 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in Uncategorized

Recurrent losses can lead to frustration. Youngsters, unaware of the lengthy-term effects of this addiction, finish up losing a lot of power and cash on it, and may possibly develop health issues. Lack of central regulation gives rise to the spread of illegal practices and an unfair use of resources. They tend to risk large amounts and are unable to resist the temptation to do so.

Furthermore, unregulated m88 gambling gives network hackers with opportunities to gain uncomplicated access to the confidential data of internet users. These internet sites target youngsters, as it is less complicated to lure them with free gifts and discounts. They really feel the need to have to gamble with large amounts of income. Important resources that can rather be invested in constructive activities, are wasted in baits and bets.

Mostly, no government authority regulates on the internet gambling. This can lead to heavy economic losses, and even bankruptcy. Gambling is betting dollars and operating the danger of losing it. Increase in the quantity of on-line casinos, rise in the popularity of games like on-line poker and bingo, and a steady boost in the number of youngsters and teenagers finding addicted to it, does not paint a quite superior image of the future of World wide web use. Unregulated gambling practices may possibly result in unwarranted expenditure of income and sheer waste of time.

In the current years, there has been a tremendous rise in the number of youngsters and youngsters taking portion in Net gambling. The biggest disadvantage of World wide web gambling is the waste of useful time and funds of the person involved. World-wide-web gambling entails on-line fund transfers requiring the exchange of credit card information more than the Web. These with this disorder are usually preoccupied with the thoughts of gambling. Hackers can very easily access such user facts and breach data safety.. Surveys have revealed that kids and youngsters are the most affected and the easiest prey to provides.

Gambling that makes use of the World wide web is identified as World-wide-web gambling. Repeated failures can breed feelings of inferiority, and in intense instances, one particular may well even lose interest in living.

Pathological gambling disorder has symptoms equivalent to addiction. It describes a state wherein gambling-associated behavior of a person hampers his/her private and social life. It really is high time we understand the effect on the net gambling can have on us, and take measures towards curbing its recognition.

Excessive exposure to on the web gambling web-sites leads to addiction. Its rising reputation is stealing a lot of productive time of those addicted to it

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Arsenal, ManU and Portsmouth: How Clubs Manage Costs

September 12, 2015 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in Uncategorized

Initially, a London property slump resulted in slow sales, but Arsenal was under no pressure.

The idea for supporters to fashion their own subtle protest, by wearing the green and gold colours of Newton Heath, the original United m88 club formed in 1878 by workers on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, was suggested by one fan on a messageboard, under his posting name, chatmaster.

It’s not just good management on the pitch that counts in Premier League football. Yet all is still not well, pointing up another innate contradiction of the football business. The 60,000 seat Emirates stadium, comprising some of the most expensive tickets in the Premier League, was already paying dividends.

United has enjoyed enormous success since, winning the Premier League in 2007, 2008 and 2009, and the European Champions League in 2008.

UEFA Clamps Down on Fat-Cat Footballers

Five months later, in October 2008, the then FA chairman, Lord Triesman, publicly warned that English professional football’s debts, which he estimated at £3bn, carried “very tangible dangers” for clubs, and called for greater restraint, especially on players’ wages.

Run aground: Portsmouth scuppered by owner

Last Updated Jun 11, 2010 12:08 PM EDT

The contradictions at the heart of the Premier League, its relentless commercial growth allied to persistent concerns about its financial and moral health, have been played out most remarkably in the soaring stands of Old Trafford, home of Manchester United. Wenger is being forced to acknowledge that there’s a balance to be struck between the pure, idealised principles of sport and the mucky, financial market in traded football talent.

Gaydamak himself declared shortly after the FA Cup victory that he could no longer afford to throw his millions into the club, because he himself had been holed by the recession. Dubbed the Red Knights , the group has so far shied away from making a formal offer, because they and the Glazers cannot agree a sensible price for Manchester United.

Wayne Rooney, striker for Man Utd. The following year, when Harry Redknapp’s team won the FA Cup, the club lost £17m, and the administrators estimated that in the year to May 31 2009, the club lost £13m. Richard Scudamore, the league’s chief executive and top deal-broker, argued that the club’s collapse was due to “rank bad management” — but it was management which had been tolerated, even celebrated, when Portsmouth returned from Wembley with the FA Cup in May 2008.

The Glazers are adamant that they won’t sell the club, from which they see profits from the Premier League’s continually booming revenues. The north London club did have substantial debts, £265m, but they were taken on as an investment in the Emirates Stadium,to which the club moved in 2006. The club was, in fact, a textbook example of the way in which many clubs are run. Photo: Flickr

After Portsmouth’s £122.8m financial meltdown, the Premier League sought to argue it was a one-off, not symptomatic of wider problems in top-flight football nor an international embarrassment. Yet resentment at the debt-laden takeover has never been assuaged. It became a phenomenon. But Scudamore claimed the Premier League’s debts were sustainable.

In the red: Manchester United’s mounting debt

In the shell of the old Highbury Stadium, an icon of art deco style when its stands were built in the 1930s, Arsenal built apartments designed fo New Lads-made-good. It showed that despite a staggering £460m for which the club had become liable as a direct result of the takeover, United’s total debts had increased to £716m, because the capital had not been touched and the high interest on payment-in-kind loans had “rolled up.”

Portsmouth blew a hole in that assertion, but it is not an isolated case of bad stewardship. All Rights Reserved.

Whether or not the consortium eventually launches a bid for the club, its efforts add credibility to protests on the terraces, creating an uncommon solidarity between business bosses and fans.

So financially Arsenal embodies metropolitan wealth.

Going great guns: Arsenal’s Good Governance

The supporters were at once demonstrating against what they saw as the carpet-bagging of a great sporting institution by speculators from afar who’d not put in one cent of investment, and at the same time championing the original working class values of the club. This epic clash over the soul of a football club rumbles on.

Arsene Wenger, Arsenal Manager.

Among all the Premier League club accounts for 2008-09 — leaving aside the 14 clubs which made losses and the 15 which relied on owners’ subsidies — Arsenal stood proud, a model of financial governance. It was living beyond its means, paying players too much, because it had an owner, a Russian Israeli, Sacha Gaydamak, who was to pouring money into the club soak up the losses.

See Also:

The Premier League of Debt

In March a consortium of investors, including succesful directors of legal and media firms, was reported to have formed to raise enough money to buy back the club.

Football Lessons for Managers

In January, the Glazers issued a prospectus to refinance £500m of the debt, and the document renewed United fans’ outrage. The manager, Arsene Wenger, has become resistant to spending much of this surplus on signing new players, believing fervently that the young team he has nurtured for years will ultimately succeed with style.

In the year to May 31, 2007, Portsmouth’s overspending led to a loss of £23m. The club is currently owned by the Florida-based Glazer family, who bought United with £559m of borrowed money in May 2005, then loaded responsibility for paying the debts onto the club itself. Portsmouth is their cautionary tale: when Gaydamak pulled his money out, the club was launched on the fast track to the insolvency court..

In 2008-09 Arsenal turned over £316m, by far the highest ever by an English club, boosted by apartment sales, which are now generating a profit. Here are three examples of how clubs have been managed: with prudence, with high risk and with absolute abandon.

© 2010 CBS Interactive Inc.. Fifteen of the Premier League’s clubs, three-quarters, are supported financially by owners. Much of its £265m debt, which has been substantially reduced, is at a low, five percent fixed rate of interest. Millions in match-day returns and broadcasting rights are at stake and the level of speculation required to keep a top-flight club on its toes is as high as any other industry. Photo Flickr

Off the field, the books sing, yet on it, the players have failed in critical challenges, and the season ended with Cesc Fabregas, the club captain, reported to be wanting a move back home to Barcelona

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Things To Do In Liverpool, England

September 11, 2015 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in Uncategorized

This was shown no more so than the support given from Everton and it;s fans following the Hillsborough Tragedy in which 96 Liverpool fans lost their lives at a match in 1989.

Then this is a city steeped in history, with stories, legends, heroes and villains that could never be imagined in a story. We have many different museums, including the Maritime Museum, World Museum Liverpool, Tate Liverpool and for those from across the Atlantic there is the very honest story of how Liverpool was an integral part of the slave trade at the International Slavery Museum.

. As Liverpool famous manager, Bill Shankley, once said ” Football m88 isn’t a matter of life and death, it’s much more important than that” and yet when the time needs it, the lovable people of this city show why Liverpool v Everton is known as the Friendly Derby. Both with a great history of victories, including Liverpool being crowned Champions of Europe 5 times, each has a stadium to be proud of complete with its own museum and guided tour to help you relive the moments that have turned the local people to treat and follow their team more like a religion. The new mecca for shopping enthusuiasts opened in 2008 as was simply called Liverpool 1, and is the largest open air shopping centre in the United Kingdom. When four young lads from Liverpool got together at a garden fete and formed a band called The Beatles, little did they know they would go on to become the world’s biggest band and continue a fine tradition of creating more British number 1 records from their city, than from any other city in the country. Liverpool 1 is also home to many hotels including The Hilton.

Liverpool Waterfront – A World Heritage Site

The Pool of Life

When planning any trip to England, you must make time to come to the North West coastal city of Liverpool. It boasts top names like, John Lewis and Debenhams, along with couture names such as Ted Baker and Karen Millen which adds top the top boutique found in Liverpool such as fashion conscious WAG’s favourite Cricket. Liverpool has throughout the years been a religious city and boasts not one but two cathedrals. A city with over 800 years of rich history, it has been developed over the last 15 years to become one of the biggest tourist destinations in the country with a whole wide range of things to see and do that will cater for just about any taste!!

Here is your guide to the things that you’ll find in our fair city and the reasons why millions of visitors each year have a special love for Liverpool, and its resident population known as Scousers, in their heart.

If History is your thing…

Twist and Shout!

You’ll Never Walk Alone

No trip to Liverpool is complete without taking some consideration to the locals passion for their two great football team Liverpool, and Everton. Today, the city pays tribute to the Fab Four, in the shape of statues, museums, tours, hotels and other iconic buildings from their past – including the Cavern – are all open for the public to visit and to imagine what it must have been like to have been present during the swinging 60′s when pop music was the new phenomenom.

Shop until you drop

Liverpool’s city centre shopping area was reopened after over £500m was spent on giving the whole area(170,000 square meters) a major facelift. Liverpool is widely acknowledged as the capital city of music and practically the birthplace of Pop music. Both with unique awe inspiring archtecture, from the traditional Anglican Cathedral to the circular Catholic Cathedral – affectionately known by Scousers as ‘Paddy’s Wig-Wam’

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Neymar out of Copa America after Brazil drop appeal

September 9, 2015 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in Uncategorized

This is a decisive moment.

Colombia international Bacca’s mother says she wanted to “hit” Neymar after the game, adding: “If I’d have been in the stadium I would have taken off my high heel and hit Neymar; I know many women in the stadium would have joined me.”

“No matter where I am from this point on, I will always be with the team, cheering for the success of my teammates and knowing that I am on the sidelines but would kill to be playing.

“Good luck Brazil!!”

On Friday the Barcelona forward saw a provisional two-game suspension increased to four games m88 — and the remainder of the Copa America — but the Selecao will not follow up an initial decision to appeal the ban.

“There is no happiness. It is very hard to have trained for something and then have a situation that may have turned into an accidental injury or that would have made everything more difficult.

According to the referee Enrique Osses’ match report, Neymar insulted himafter kicking a ball at Colombian player Armero at the end of the game, saying: “You want to make yourself famous at my expense, you son of a b—h.”

ESPN FC’s Mark Donaldson reacts to the news that Brazil will not appeal Neymar’s 4-game suspension. My staying here could disrupt the concentration of my team.. “Sadly, that will not be possible. I know that my presence is the group is important, and so is the presence of all the rest of the players so now more than ever we must have all of our thoughts completely focused on the matches ahead of us.

Brazil managed to qualify for the quarterfinals of the tournament on Sunday by beating Venezuela 2-1 to set up a tie against Paraguay on June 27.

“I ask my teammates to forgive me. Being in this situation I am certain has been a learning experience in my career.

They CFB added that it hoped the Copa America disciplinary committee “applies the same rigour as CONMEBOL” and that the sanction applies for “all competitions” organised by the governing body.

Neymar’s actions at the end of Brazil’s defeat to Colombia sparked a melee between the two sets of players.

Neymar issued a statement via Instagram encouraging his teammates to focus without him and apologising for his mistakes.

Neymar, 23, was sent off at the conclusion of Wednesday’s defeat to Colombia for an attempted head-butt of Jeison Murillo that sparked a melee, during which Colombia striker Carlos Bacca was also shown red.

“Neymar is set to leave the Brazilian national football team headquarters this morning in Santiago de Chile”, the CBF said in an official statement.

Brazilian coach Dunga gave Neymar the freedom to decide to stay with the squad or leave Chile to start his summer holidays.

“I had Faith and was hoping up until now that there was the possibility I would be able to play with the Selecao in Copa America,” the statement reads.

“I have never skirted the responsibility of being a leader of the group and as captain I have always dedicated myself to seek victory and make decisions, whether they are right or wrong.

Neymar will leave the team’s Copa America base on Monday morning and miss the rest of the tournament after it was decided against appealing his four-game suspension, the Brazilian Football Federation (CBF) has confirmed.

“I wanted to say what I felt to the group and to the coaching staff, who have always supported me

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Are Barcelona The Best Team Ever?

September 9, 2015 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in Uncategorized

The best player in the world at only 24 years old, only Cristiano Ronaldo comes close. At rightback Dani Alves is probably the best attacking full back in the world, but at times can be frail defensively.

Alexis Sanchez is a very fast winger who can both cross and shoot, and after being the best player in Serie A in 2010-11 he earned himself a move to Barcelona. His burst of pace to take him past defenders is a key part of his game.

Pique and Puyol have formed a solid partneship in the centre of the Barca defence. Their normal line up is this:

………………Valdes

Without a doubt the best midfield in the world.

Xavi’s passing and control of the m88 game is second to none, he consistently has a pass accuracy of 90%+, while Iniesta’s is similar and he also contributes more in goalscoring. Puyol is a big thread from corners.

Abidal is a fairly solid left back, although one problem could be his pace. He is very agile around his area and has great shot-stopping reflexes.In the 2011-12 season, he went 896 minutes without conceding a goal, a new record for La Liga.

However Mascherano and Fabregas are possible starters in midfield, and Pedro on the left wing is available and good enough to come in.

Midfield

Abidal….Pique….Puyol….Alves

…….Iniesta…Busquets..Xavi

And last, of course, we have Lionel Messi. Only 5ft 7in tall but his goalscoring record speaks for itself: 170 goals in just over 200 games, and he is Barcelona’s all-time top goalscorer.

Defence

Busquets is slowly becoming a very good defensive midfielder, with a style of play based around positioning and interceptions rather than crunching tackles and physicality. Fabregas is a ready-made replacement for Xavi and is more than competent filling in anywhere in midfield or even in more attacking positions. He only has 11 caps at the age of 30.

Forwards

……Villa…..Messi….Sanchez. David Villa is one of the best out and out strikers in the world, however at Barcelona he finds himself pushed out to the left to accomodate Messi, although he is still very effective in that position.

Goalkeeper

Valdes is one of the best goalkeepers in the world, Casillas is undoubtedly the best, but there is arguments for Valdes, along with Manuel Neuer, Jose Reina and Petr Cech for second place.

Unfortunately for Valdes, he is firmly stuck in second place for the Spain national team. Both are know to get forward and contribute to goals , and Pique especially is very good with the ball at his feet.

There’s no doubt that Barcelona have an amazing team

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May the odds be ever in your favor

June 7, 2015 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in Uncategorized

If only there were someone who was willing to demystify the polling, tell us who to trust and who to dismiss–and, well, just tell us who’s going to win.

In his book The Victory Lab: The Secret Science of Winning Campaigns, Sasha Issenberg writes that campaigns have been doing this for years, using data to calculate how likely a person is to vote or canvas for a candidate given past behavior. Crowd-sourced wisdom didn’t need formalized data–just gut feel.

On May 20, 2011, John Delaney awoke 550 meters from the summit of Mount Everest. One is democratic, the other technocratic. At 4:30 a.m., 100 meters from the summit of Everest, the guides pronounced Delaney dead. His model predicted Barack Obama would win by 17 points in North Carolina and lose by 2 points in Indiana; pundits predicted that he’d win Carolina by about 7 and lose Indiana by about 4. Cerebral and pulmonary edemas–the leaking of fluid to the brain and heart–are increasingly likely at that altitude. For a few cycles, sites like Pollster.com and RealClearPolitics averaged the glut of polls to present a reliable snapshot of the race. We speak for them,” Silver writes in his book. Opened in 2001 as an online sports-betting market, the company quickly transitioned to politics when Delaney saw demand for its prop political bets. By August, the number of political m88 bets had surpassed its 2008 peak by 2.2 million. A guide came down from the summit and, with the help of sherpas, began to escort him back down the mountain. The free flow of probability in the wild can be senseless and terrifying–look at Intrade’s volatility after a big news day, or Delaney’s tragic fate.

The details of Silver’s models are crucial, but most readers can’t be bothered with them. Still, even Sam Wang, a Princeton neuroscientist and political modeler who Silver describes as “one of my most frequent critics,” says Silver’s quantified analysis “is missing from most political commentary, which is statistically not sophisticated. The mass media needs more people like him.”

Blumenthal is concerned that Silver is mixing punditry with his polls, and that readers aren’t savvy enough to see it that way. Treating politicians like stocks, Intrade’s website offers markets for people to invest in their conviction that Mitt Romney would win the 2012 Republican presidential nomination. If Obama’s stock is trading at 60 out of 100, say, that’s not an ironclad decree about who’s going to win. “There is less ambiguity,” he says about the campaign efforts, “than there is in predicting something that’s going to happen.”

——————-

***

Silver’s list of simple things includes aggregating every poll that’s released, weighting them according to their trustworthiness (defined by past performance), combining those polls with various indicators–economic statistics, a candidate’s incumbency, the state’s demographics–and using it all to calculate who’s going to win the presidency. By the time Gallup polls established themselves in the late 1930s, electoral bets were out of the papers. After the North Carolina experiment, he started to blend economic and demographic indicators with polls to create a new type of prediction model.

In the wake of John Delaney’s death, Intrade has no icon to rival Silver. Silver became an oracle.

Delaney left behind his wife, three kids, and a company that has changed the way political junkies obsess about elections. And yet their success springs from the same well: a human desire to forecast the unknown, and a modern desire to do it with data. To him, these markets are a practical use of economic principle. You never knew if somebody had access to a poll you didn’t, so why take the chance?

That doesn’t mean Rothschild thinks one is definitively better than the other. But when the voters turn out, they’re not predicting anything, they’re deciding–until next season, when the forecasters start their climbs anew.

***

As Intrade came into its own in 2008, a geek emerged from the cornfields of baseball statistics to offer an alternative method of predicting the future. But then he started his own site, fivethirtyeight.com, and outed himself. As he said, simple.

These markets were proto-Intrades. According to forecasts, the temperature was -7 degrees Fahrenheit, and winds blew as fast as 40 miles an hour.

To read more pieces like this in Tomorrow Magazine, a new magazine from the former editors of GOOD Magazine, you can buy the first issue here.

Since then, his method has evolved. The market on the Missouri Senate race between Claire McCaskill and Todd Akin, for example, was woefully inactive until Akin made his “legitimate rape” comment. American political observers were building betting pools as early as the Lincoln Administration, according to economists Paul Rohde and Koleman Strumpf. Intrade, founded as a small, unassuming betting market in Dublin, became part of a new trend in American politics. In the first nine months of 2012, more than $124 million was traded on Intrade’s political markets. He won Carolina by 14 and lost Indiana by 2. His predictions, though didn’t rely on the wisdom of crowds, but on calculations. If an upstanding American wanted to wager on whom Mitt Romney would choose as his vice president in July, he’d need to find a workaround, often by using a wire transfer to a foreign financial institution. “Even rocket science is trying to coordinate a bunch of relatively simple things,” he told me.

But Delaney was too far from Orla and too close to the summit to be notified. “The numbers have no way of speaking for themselves. “It is when we deny our role in the process that the odds of failure rise.”

***

Intrade wasn’t the first to offer a political prediction market, but it was the savviest. Amazingly, they were right–sometimes even better than the polls they were based on. By 2010, meanwhile, editors at The New York Times were so impressed with Silver they hired him to bolster the paper’s election coverage; Silver also signed a book contract with a reported $700,000 advance. The odds that Delaney would succumb to the mountain were low.

Silver and Intrade are vastly different touchstones in our new predictive era. Nevertheless, Blumenthal says with a resigned laugh, “it’s certainly sophisticated. Silver wanted to do more. Drowning in information, in data, in input. They wouldn’t reemerge with any popularity until the 21st century.

Each of the eight climbers in the group had their own sherpa and oxygen supply. It’s certainly complex.”

But both share a weakness: their trust in polls. Nevertheless, three-quarters of new accounts originate from the U.S.

Silver doesn’t think what he does for a living is complex, which is why he compares it to rocket science. Barry Ritholtz, a financial writer, has been on a crusade against the platform for years because of its willingness to let people predict things they have no ability to predict. She named her Hope.

David Rothschild, an economist who specializes in data-based forecasting, compared Intrade and Silver’s performances in 2008 and found Intrade was just as good, if not slightly better, than Silver in close races. “People out there email that the best poll out there is Nate Silver’s FiveThirtyEight, but it’s not a poll,” he told me. The web lets us all access the same public opinion polls, subscribe to the same breaking news Twitter accounts, and see the same GIFs of Barack Obama slow-jamming the news. Uncertainty is literally blamed for our economic problems. Silver, remember, decides what goes in his model and what stays out. The upsets aren’t jarring, they’re just black swans, unlikely events come to fruition. Intrade and Silver rely on the same set of public-opinion surveys to give a snapshot of today’s opinions. By the 1890s, Wall Street supervised the betting, and newspapers reported the latest odds in the next edition. After it was purchased by Baseball Prospectus, a clearinghouse for baseball stats, he quit his job to play online poker, at one point netting $400,000.

Jackman has a theory about the undulating rise and fall of political betting markets: People only bet their money when they think they have a chance of winning. Amid all this, we look for signs–data–that can help us predict what might happen. Together, they’re a buddy-cop squad from the future.

“I don’t want to make it sound like I think Silver’s evil, though with a couple of beers I probably could,” he told me, admitting that as a competitor, he might be biased.

“We face danger whenever information growth outpaces our understanding of how to process it,” Silver writes in his book. He was anonymous at first, one of the masses in the scrum at liberal blog DailyKos, username: poblano. At 1:45 a.m., 50 meters from the summit, Delaney began to struggle. politics, even though U.S. One hundred years before Nate Silver, the Times was reporting on election odds.

If the Silvers and Intrades of the past faded, why have they reemerged, and why do they feel so new? By World War II, betting markets had all but disappeared. There’s enough noise for all of us to sort through and find our own signal. Intrade can be an invaluable snapshot of rapid reaction to breaking news, while Silver performs the kinds of calculations no Intrade investor has the time, skills, or assets to do and presents them in a way that people can easily understand. It had competition–Iowa Electronic Markets and BetFair, among others–but by opening itself up to the media and researchers, it became for political betting markets what Kleenex is to facial tissue. “The HTML around them have changed, but the underlying economics haven’t.” Likewise, Silver’s models aren’t novel. They’ve been hiding in academia for decades. That comes with the territory, really–the model can’t make itself. That’s one reason, perhaps, we’re so focused on trying to understand the results in advance. Pollsters, though, are increasingly threatened by budget cuts and the high cost of cellphone polling.* If the accuracy of their surveys is weak, then the machines’ final product will be, too. The result? Quantified public perception of the race–”conventional wisdom, plus” as one academic told me.

The nation’s prospects seem far more uncertain than John Delaney’s Everest climb: Unemployment and student debt, a never-ending culture clash at home and abroad, climate change. All of Silver’s extras, Blumenthal argues, don’t do much more than Pollster.com’s average because the base of Silver’s model are the same polls. (Silver told me he wishes he could provide complete methodologies, he just doesn’t have the time.) For the mainstream reader, Silver’s final probability score is all that’s remembered–it doesn’t matter what it’s made of. But, Wolfers argues, prediction markets are probability markets. No matter how democratic information becomes, experts like Silver are still in demand to synthesize it for the masses. Everest deaths were not unheard of–the statistics are publicly available. In the gaping maw of a nonstop news cycle, we’re finding more and more data (I’m using that term loosely) to fill the void.

Only on rare occasions, like Election Day, do we allow the voice of the many to crowd out the oracular few. Adjusted for inflation, tens of millions of dollars were invested, topping out at an absurd $211 million (in today’s dollars) for the down-to-the-wire Wilson-Hughes race of 1916. His company invited users to bet on the news: Customers would calculate probabilities, assess risk, make a wager. It proved irresistible to political journalists, for whom the horse race is stock-in-trade.

Silver graduated from the University of Chicago with a degree in economics in 2000, then whiled away a few years as an economic consultant for an accounting firm. But it was just that–a snapshot. The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail–But Some Don’t came out in late September.

Political prediction is a renaissance, not a revolution. And sometimes, there simply aren’t enough traders to produce a full picture of events. There are buyers, there are sellers, and their exchanges tell us about the world, no matter the era in which the action is taking place. “I live in fear but also the recognition that one year we’re going to have the polls way off,” Silver says. When you’re betting on information, you want to make sure you have just as much as everybody else. It should have read that pollsters budgets are being cut.

Editor’s note: This piece was originally written for Tomorrow Magazine, whose first issue comes out this month. “Prediction markets were extremely accurate 100 years ago,” Wolfers says. On Everest, Delaney was doing much the same.

This close to the summit, he was on an area of the mountain known as the death zone, where the atmosphere is about three times thinner than at sea level. In 2004, 2 million political shares were traded; in 2008, 8 million; with two months to go in the 2012 presidential election, there were 12 million.

Now markets are once again open for all “because we’re drowning,” Jackman says. Bored, he surreptitiously created a spreadsheet that forecast baseball players’ futures based on statistical measurements of similar players. Still, between 1921 and 2006, just 94 people died at this stage of the climb–above 8,000 meters, but before the summit. At 7:30 p.m., he set out from camp, 8,300 meters above sea level. “Nate’s doing a few things that are clever, many of which were in political science literature, all of which make sense,” says political scientist Simon Jackman, who developed prediction models while Silver was still in college.

The problem is that Intrade markets can sometimes be, well, totally useless. “The traders as a group have no correlation to the decision-makers,” he wrote on his blog after Intrade confidently forecast that the Supreme Court would rule Obamacare’s individual mandate unconstitutional. What might happen politically matters more than nearly anything else.

Mark Blumenthal, the founding editor of Pollster.com, was, in many ways, the Silver of 2004, a guy who came out of nowhere to help the general public better understand the quantitative side of politics. It’s just four people in a Dublin office, managing a system that draws more than 2,000 trades a day. It needs a creator. Moreover, the markets were quite predictive. Silver had proved his bona fides.

***

Justin Wolfers is an economist at the University of Pennsylvania whose outspoken support of prediction markets has made him the public face of the field. It hasn’t stopped growing since it transitioned to news bets. Once scientific polling began, information became undemocratic. Pundits cite Intrade market prices to prove their points, even if the market they cite is hopelessly flawed. The man who made his living taking bets had succumbed to his own.

Silver created models that predicted the winners of the 2008 campaign, just like Intrade. He would never know Hope.

Back in Ireland, three days earlier, his wife, Orla, had given birth to a premature baby, though only 6 percent of babies born in Ireland are premature. “The capacity of the betting markets to aggregate information is all the more remarkable given the absence of scientific polls,” Rohde and Strumpf write. The Delaneys knew that something could go wrong; they just assumed that it wouldn’t. The article is being republished with permission.

He first caught the attention of political junkies when, still anonymous on DailyKos, he predicted the results of the 2008 Democratic primaries not by interpreting polls, but demographics and past votes. Intrade is also afflicted by a longshot bias, a phenomenon common to all markets in which bettors overvalue the chances of a dark horse. All that means is that sometimes, Intrade makes the wrong forecast.

“John and I were both very much aware of the risks involved,” Orla said at his funeral. Tragically, they made the wrong prediction. Obama’s 60 percent stock really means he’s going to win the election 60 times out of 100.

Intrade’s most-trafficked markets, by far, are the ones about U.S. He wanted to take pictures of the future. In the early 20th century, betting markets were “democratic because there wasn’t much [information],” he says. Delaney, who founded Intrade, a website for those who love to predict the future, had been trying to get to the top of the world for years. At some point a future president is going to channel Harry Truman, gleefully holding up an iPad with FiveThirtyEight’s mistaken forecast on display.

Four years later, Intrade and Silver are further entrenched in the national political conversation. But now he’s concerned about where Silver has sent the discipline.

“Every time something happens where an underdog wins I get calls from six journalists saying Intrade said it wouldn’t happen,” says Wolfers, the economist with the prediction penchant. It’s a probability, just like Silver’s calculations. “In presidential races in 1896, 1900, 1904, 1916, and 1924, The New York Times, Sun, and World provided nearly daily quotes from early October until Election Day,” Rohde and Strumpf write. Spooked by the potential for people to rig the election with their bets, New York’s state government cracked down on electoral gambling. Altogether, Everest claimed 192 climbers’ lives in that 86-year span, 1.3 percent of those who attempted a climb. They aren’t trying to divine the future, they’re trying to connect the dots. “It doesn’t make any sense to be a partisan of one set of data or another,” he told me over a beer in Manhattan. Good thing we’re overflowing with it.

***

CORRECTION: Because of an editing error, this piece originally referred to Pollster.com’s budget being cut. His name was Nate Silver, and he was ready to do for politics what statistician Bill James had done for baseball: Make statistics a force to be reckoned with.

Nevertheless, Issenberg reports that the Obama campaign reached out to Silver in 2008 for “a little external validation that what we were seeing is what was actually going on,” as one adviser put it. In the presidential race, Intrade’s predictions were regularly more accurate than Silver’s weeks earlier in the cycle.

***

. banks don’t allow customers to bet on Intrade markets

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Soccer Statistics – Past Results, Match Fixtures, Head-to-Head (H2H), Odds Comparison, Team Form

May 16, 2015 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in Uncategorized

Bet using your brain and not your heart!

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Types of Poker Games

May 1, 2015 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in Uncategorized

The number of cards can be varied. In case a player remains ‘in the hand’ due to the fact that others have folded, he is declared the winner by default.

This is a fair warning. Always keep cool. In these games, each player’s incomplete hidden hand is combined with the shared face-up cards. Once you are sure, learn something about the types of poker games and how these are played with this article.

In this game, players are dealt a complete hand, then the cards are hidden, and the https://www.fun88no1.com players strive to improve the hand by replacing their cards. ~ William J Florence

Poker is perhaps one of the most popular types of card games and involves more skill than people think. However, the seven-card stud and five-card stud are the most popular ones.

There are two international level poker events. There is no sympathy in poker. It is the simplicity of this game that might be one of the reasons for its immense popularity.

Omaha hold ‘em: Omaha is similar to Texas hold ‘em where every player is dealt four cards and must make his best hand using exactly two of them and using exactly three of the five community cards. And yes, don’t forget to practice your poker face!

Texas Hold ‘em: This game is very popular in casinos and poker card rooms across North America and Europe. The original game involves players betting on the card combinations in their possession – often called the hand. However unlike the world series of Poker, which includes multiple variants of Poker, this event is a collection of Texas hold ‘em poker tournaments held internationally.

Be it a grand casino in Las Vegas, or your online casino website – you can indulge in a game of poker wherever you want. Unless you are completely sure of handling yourself once you understand this fun88 game, you are at your own risk. Although the real fun of playing this game lies in the hustle and bustle of jam-packed casinosl. The bets of all the players are collected in a central pot, and the one who holds the hand with the highest value wins. In this game, each player receives a blend of face-up cards and face-down cards in multiple betting rounds. The popularity of this game can be gauged considering the fact that there exists a world series of poker and the world poker tour. This variation allows the players the scope to indulge in some strategic analysis as well. Although the original game is called ‘Omaha High’, a different version called ‘Omaha hi-lo’ also exists.

Stud Poker

The strong point in poker is never to lose your temper, either with those you are playing with or, more particularly, with the cards. The winner is awarded a bracelet and the highlight of the event remains to be the $10,000 no-limit hold ‘em with the winner receiving a grand multi-million dollar prize. The game is named according to the number of cards drawn, for example if five cards are dealt, it is called Five Card Draw.

These variants are also quite popular. For people who are not quite familiar with the game, it can be a great idea to play some online poker, or some basic poker at home with friends and family before trying it out in the casino. This month-long event, held annually in Las Vegas is the largest set of poker tournaments in the world. Poker has controlled minds, decisions, thoughts, and lives of many. If you lose your head you will lose all your chips. In this game, each player only starts with two cards and the remaining cards are shared. The World Series of Poker is perhaps one of the biggest Poker events. Although there exist various types of variants, the most common and popular ones remain to be Texas hold ‘em and Omaha hold ‘em.

Community Card Poker

There are various types of poker games and most of the variants have attained considerable popularity.

Draw Poker. And then there is another huge poker event called the World Poker Tour

Online Gambling: A Growing Addiction

May 1, 2015 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in Uncategorized

He credits a 12-step program to helping him overcome his problem, and he has not gambled in almost four years.

“I think it’s a devastating illness, it’s an illness that if it’s not treated, it will end up that the person’s whole lifestyle will be affected,” said Ed Looney, executive director of Council on Compulsive Gambling of New Jersey.

If you or your loved ones has a gambling problem, help can be found at the National Council on Problem Gambling.

The problem is affecting younger people as well. That will always be there. Drawn in by the popularity of poker, half of all men in college are gambling on an monthly basis — even though betting on sports is illegal everywhere in the U.S. By some estimates, $7 billion is wagered on the Super Bowl alone in casinos, online and with bookies.

“Sports betting is the rock of Gibraltar,” Looney said. “But I thought this must be what I have to do. These are things that I avoided my whole life, not choosing to be a part of, but today I cherish them.”. “I’ve heard other people compare it to a cocaine addiction, the high you get from that, and that’s the euphoria I felt,” he said. He considered going to Mexico and if he couldn’t kill himself there, he’d pay someone else to do it, he said.

It is now high season for sports betting. The lining up the money, the handicapping of the game, the betting of the game, the watching of the game. “It’s American, like apple pie. except Nevada.

‘A Devastating Illness’

Erickson is a compulsive gambler, a condition just as dangerous and debilitating as drug or alcohol addiction. People love to bet on their football games.”

“Life is great,” Erickson said. There are an estimated 6 million people who deal with the problem in the United States. Win or lose, it didn’t matter to me, it just set me up to bet again.”

The situation became so dire, that Erickson contemplated killing himself. The sharing of experiences with friends, family, like I’ve never seen before. As gambling on the Internet becomes more popular and more sites crop up, those numbers are expected to increase.

Mark Erickson always craved a piece of the action — so the accountant from Phoenix started betting on m88 sports over the Internet.

But soon, it spiraled out of control.

Three and a half years ago, Erickson accrued $400,000 in gambling debts. The college bowl games this weekend lead to the NFL playoffs and the Super Bowl. “The miracles I’ve experienced. And when they caught on, he left his family and fled.

“I became this person I didn’t know,” he said. I got to get myself out of it.

Nevertheless, the industry rakes in mind-boggling amounts of cash. “It becomes an all-consuming activity. Desperate, he began stealing from his clients. I got myself into this. He served a year in prison and now works for a http://www.thai-m88.com compulsive gambling helpline. Then, it’s March Madness, where many participate in an office betting pool.

After 23 days on the run, Erickson turned himself in. People love to bet on it

College football picks of the week

September 11, 2016 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in college football

But it’s loaded with point spread opportunities thanks to overreaction from both the players and (betting) public.

Some teams will bounce back impressively, others will prove the preseason hype and expectations were unreasonable.

Continue Reading ->

All picks against the spread. 

Lines taken from vegasinsider.com (opening lines used). Pick: Troy.

Week Two lacks the choice matchups that littered the Labor Day weekend schedule. But it’s close enough, after the tough win at Auburn, to make those 34 points look more like 54.

Last week: 2-3

Season: 2-3

Five-star special: 1-0

throwingdarts

TROY (plus-34) at CLEMSON: Not technically a trap game for Clemson because there’s a cupcake next week

Don’t Be a Square: 10 Tips for Betting on Football

September 11, 2016 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in betting baseball

And remember, in the immortal words of “Fast” Eddie Felson, “Money won is twice as sweet as money earned.”

But even though the math says it’s virtually impossible to win on a consistent basis, Americans continue to bet on football. Shop For Numbers – “Another important aspect of betting on football is shopping for the best number,” Moseman explains. Research Football Services – “Most sports services realize that most people who sign up with them are insecure,” Gordon warns. If you like an underdog, it is best to get your bet in as late as possible, where there is heavy action from squares on favorites. Drinking and Gambling Don’t Mix – “There is a reason the casinos in Las Vegas supply you with free drinks while you are gambling,” Moseman says. If you want advice about sports betting, find someone who has a successful track record. Also, being “in action” can make a dull late-afternoon game (Buffalo vs.

“A square or recreational player might have a vague plan, but after two Corona’s he will definitely run to the window and make a hasty decision on the USC-Notre Dame game because he wants to be involved in the party atmosphere,” Vaccaro says.

“A square is the average, unsophisticated gambler whose decision making is based on hunches, media manipulation, or spurious systems that cannot overcome the bookmaker’s inherent mathematical advantage,” Konik explains. “If you listen to their advice, you are sure to lose. But, when you’re struggling, that’s when you want to reduce your bet size until you get out of your slump.

So, how much are we gambling each football season?

10. Big underdogs often find ways to cover the spread and they rarely give up toward the end of a game in front of the home crowd.”

8. The only locks that exist are those that need keys to open them.”

Although exact figures are impossible to calculate, according to Jimmy Vaccaro, widely considered to be Las Vegas’ most influential bookmaker, Americans probably wager more than $50 billion a year on NFL and college football combined. Bet at the Right Time – “The sharp bettors tend to bet underdogs, and they tend to bet them early,” Moseman says. Money Management – “This is without a doubt the most important aspect of betting on sports and possibly the most neglected,” says Morey “Doc” Moseman, a professional gambler and sports consultant with DocSports.com for nearly 40 years. They use powerful computers that can process millions of bits of data and produce a more accurate point-spread line than the bookmakers.”

However, Konik adds that there are some bettors who actually know how to beat the bookies. “Teams play inspired ball at home.

6.

“A sharp or smart has a plan of what he wants to do,” says Vaccaro, the director of sports operations and public relations at Lucky’s Race and Sports Book in Las Vegas. “Squares usually bet later in the week and they tend to pick the favorites. These books change their numbers according to the betting patterns of their customers, so it is not entirely uncommon to find two or three point differences in the lines.”

While these tips don’t guarantee you’re going to win, hopefully they can make you a little less square and a little more sharp in your picks this season. “Thus, the bookies love and cherish the squares.”

And where does all that money go?

“In an average season, fewer than one bettor in twelve turns a profit,” Gordon says.

4. Chasing losses is the fastest way to the poor house.”

7. Locks Don’t Exist – “Anyone who has watched sports for about a month realizes that the difference between winning and losing, especially against the spread, can be infinitesimally small,” Gordon says. There are almost an infinite number of scenarios that can happen in a single football game. And why not? We have unconditional love for the sport and betting $50 or $100 on a game adds an extra rush of adrenaline. Otherwise, you’re better off doing your own research.”

Newspapers and popular sports sites routinely publish the lines or point spreads for games, and football insiders offer their picks to viewers each week on ESPN and other cable networks. “The sharps are usually members of a betting syndicate privy to the most up-to-date information on injuries, weather, game plans, and, most important, the real power of the teams involved. . There is a wealth of information on the Internet; it is just up to you to find it and research it daily.”

Ted Sevransky, a well-known Las Vegas gambler and sports consultant with Sportsmemo.com, agrees.

Also, it’s probably a good idea to disregard advice from the myriad of ex-players and football experts you see on television each week. If North Texas is his best bet on a Saturday then that is his bet. Oakland comes to mind) seem like the Super Bowl. The payout is just the same as far as he is concerned. To be a successful sports bettor you need to operate with a clear mind.”

“The standard bet requires gamblers to lay $11 for every $10 they want to win with the extra $1 or 10 percent known as the juice,” Konik says. The NFL, for example, will have very similar numbers at most of the betting shops you visit. Consider Underdogs – “In the long-run, it’s easier to win betting on the underdog,” Konik says. “For example, if you have a $1,000 bankroll for the season, you should generally bet no more than $50 a game.”

Betting on football games; whether it’s through a local bookie, an offshore Internet site or a Nevada casino (still the only legal place in America to make football bets), most of us have done it or know of someone who has.

2. “Because alcohol clouds your judgment and usually helps you to make rash decisions you usually wouldn’t otherwise make. “Most people prefer to bet on the ‘better’ team, the one that will probably win the game. “When you’re in a good rhythm and winning, you want to increase your bets. On college you will be able to find different lines at different sports books. “There will be more discrepancy in the numbers at different sports books.

1. In fact, sports bettors must pick 52.4 percent winners just to break even.”

Another difference between squares and sharps is how they approach betting on game day.

Even Hollywood is not immune – think Two for the Money with Al Pacino and Matthew McConaughey.

“Most people with an understanding of football gambling bet between 3 percent and 5 percent of their bankroll, increasing when they win and reducing when they lose,” Vaccaro says. The only touts bettors should consider are the ones who talk about the long haul and realistic winning percentages, which are in the upper 50 percent to lower 60 percent range.”

But that doesn’t mean you have to bet like a “square” and throw away your hard-earned money.

5. “He is not jaded by teams and does not bet with his heart.

“The talking heads on TV know nothing about sports betting,” says Sevransky. “If you become an expert on a smaller conference like the WAC, you have a good chance to beat the house because sports book operators do not have the time or resources to follow this conference the way you can.

So, is it possible for the average square to become a little sharper in making football bets this season? According to professionals like Vacarro, Konik and Gordon, amateur bettors have the best chance to win if they demonstrate a little patience and follow the 10 basic tips below.

So, how much should you bet a game?

Moseman agrees and especially likes home underdogs. “Over the course of several seasons, the percentage of bettors who turn a profit is minuscule.”

3.

Certainly not back into the pockets of the average bettor. “The key to proper money management is to be sure not to bet more than you can afford to lose.”

9. Avoid Exotic Bets – “For very skilled handicappers, with a proven track record, there can, at least in theory, be value in betting parlays,” says Gordon on the type of bet that combines two or more individual wagers. He loses year after year, according to Dan Gordon, a top football handicapper and author of How to Beat the Sports Books (Cardoza Publishing 2005). Focus on Conferences – “The best way to win money betting football is to develop a niche and follow it closely,” Moseman advises. Avoid Chasing Bets – “Don’t do it! There is no worse way to mismanage your bankroll than to chase your bets after a losing day,” cautions Moseman on the dangerous practice of trying to immediately win back your losses. “As for me, the best bet in football is betting the point spread or over/under totals on individual games. So underdogs tend to be slightly undervalued – except by the sharps.”

“The biggest mistake that amateur bettors make is they increase their bets when they are losing,” Sevransky says. “In trying to bamboozle potential customers, many services make claims about having scouts all over the country that give them inside information and promise 70 or even 80 percent winners, as if the bookmakers were the biggest suckers in the world. He is not taken in by being involved in USC-Notre Dame just because it is the biggest watched game of the day. Giving 11 to 10 odds is almost always the cheapest price you can give.”

“There is probably no better bet in sports than playing an underdog at home,” Moseman says. Not all games work according to this formula, but it is usually a good rule of thumb.”

Michael Konik, a sports writer and best-selling author of The Smart Money (Simon & Schuster 2006), explains why it is so hard for the recreational gambler to win at betting on football. “Common wisdom says that over the course of a long football season the average man or woman will pick approximately 50 percent winners. “In the NFL, a game will often be totally turned around by one or two plays, or even a single penalty. If you are going to go with a favorite, it is best to place your bet early in the week when the sharps are laying heavy money on the points.

“The bookies fear and despise a tiny coterie of professional bettors known as ‘the sharps,’” Konik says. Slim underdogs regularly win outright. Thanks to the juice, the only one who profits in this scenario is the bookmaker

Don’t Be a Square: 10 Tips for Betting on Football

September 10, 2016 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in football betting

While these tips don’t guarantee you’re going to win, hopefully they can make you a little less square and a little more sharp in your picks this season. The only locks that exist are those that need keys to open them.”

2. “In the NFL, a game will often be totally turned around by one or two plays, or even a single penalty. “Common wisdom says that over the course of a long football season the average man or woman will pick approximately 50 percent winners. Consider Underdogs – “In the long-run, it’s easier to win betting on the underdog,” Konik says. “Over the course of several seasons, the percentage of bettors who turn a profit is minuscule.”

Certainly not back into the pockets of the average bettor.

Michael Konik, a sports writer and best-selling author of The Smart Money (Simon & Schuster 2006), explains why it is so hard for the recreational gambler to win at betting on football. Thanks to the juice, the only one who profits in this scenario is the bookmaker. Research Football Services – “Most sports services realize that most people who sign up with them are insecure,” Gordon warns. They use powerful computers that can process millions of bits of data and produce a more accurate point-spread line than the bookmakers.”

4. He loses year after year, according to Dan Gordon, a top football handicapper and author of How to Beat the Sports Books (Cardoza Publishing 2005). Also, being “in action” can make a dull late-afternoon game (Buffalo vs. If you like an underdog, it is best to get your bet in as late as possible, where there is heavy action from squares on favorites. “If you become an expert on a smaller conference like the WAC, you have a good chance to beat the house because sports book operators do not have the time or resources to follow this conference the way you can. Money Management – “This is without a doubt the most important aspect of betting on sports and possibly the most neglected,” says Morey “Doc” Moseman, a professional gambler and sports consultant with DocSports.com for nearly 40 years.

So, is it possible for the average square to become a little sharper in making football bets this season? According to professionals like Vacarro, Konik and Gordon, amateur bettors have the best chance to win if they demonstrate a little patience and follow the 10 basic tips below.

9. “There will be more discrepancy in the numbers at different sports books. Avoid Chasing Bets – “Don’t do it! There is no worse way to mismanage your bankroll than to chase your bets after a losing day,” cautions Moseman on the dangerous practice of trying to immediately win back your losses. “Squares usually bet later in the week and they tend to pick the favorites. Shop For Numbers – “Another important aspect of betting on football is shopping for the best number,” Moseman explains. The only touts bettors should consider are the ones who talk about the long haul and realistic winning percentages, which are in the upper 50 percent to lower 60 percent range.”

“A square is the average, unsophisticated gambler whose decision making is based on hunches, media manipulation, or spurious systems that cannot overcome the bookmaker’s inherent mathematical advantage,” Konik explains.

3. These books change their numbers according to the betting patterns of their customers, so it is not entirely uncommon to find two or three point differences in the lines.”.

But even though the math says it’s virtually impossible to win on a consistent basis, Americans continue to bet on football.

Also, it’s probably a good idea to disregard advice from the myriad of ex-players and football experts you see on television each week. If you want advice about sports betting, find someone who has a successful track record. Chasing losses is the fastest way to the poor house.”

6. Bet at the Right Time – “The sharp bettors tend to bet underdogs, and they tend to bet them early,” Moseman says. But, when you’re struggling, that’s when you want to reduce your bet size until you get out of your slump. Otherwise, you’re better off doing your own research.”

“The biggest mistake that amateur bettors make is they increase their bets when they are losing,” Sevransky says. The NFL, for example, will have very similar numbers at most of the betting shops you visit.

“A sharp or smart has a plan of what he wants to do,” says Vaccaro, the director of sports operations and public relations at Lucky’s Race and Sports Book in Las Vegas. “Teams play inspired ball at home. “In trying to bamboozle potential customers, many services make claims about having scouts all over the country that give them inside information and promise 70 or even 80 percent winners, as if the bookmakers were the biggest suckers in the world. If North Texas is his best bet on a Saturday then that is his bet.

“Most people with an understanding of football gambling bet between 3 percent and 5 percent of their bankroll, increasing when they win and reducing when they lose,” Vaccaro says. The payout is just the same as far as he is concerned.

And remember, in the immortal words of “Fast” Eddie Felson, “Money won is twice as sweet as money earned.”

However, Konik adds that there are some bettors who actually know how to beat the bookies. He is not taken in by being involved in USC-Notre Dame just because it is the biggest watched game of the day. “When you’re in a good rhythm and winning, you want to increase your bets. “The key to proper money management is to be sure not to bet more than you can afford to lose.”

“A square or recreational player might have a vague plan, but after two Corona’s he will definitely run to the window and make a hasty decision on the USC-Notre Dame game because he wants to be involved in the party atmosphere,” Vaccaro says. “As for me, the best bet in football is betting the point spread or over/under totals on individual games. If you are going to go with a favorite, it is best to place your bet early in the week when the sharps are laying heavy money on the points. “The sharps are usually members of a betting syndicate privy to the most up-to-date information on injuries, weather, game plans, and, most important, the real power of the teams involved.

Even Hollywood is not immune – think Two for the Money with Al Pacino and Matthew McConaughey.

“The bookies fear and despise a tiny coterie of professional bettors known as ‘the sharps,’” Konik says. To be a successful sports bettor you need to operate with a clear mind.”

Another difference between squares and sharps is how they approach betting on game day.

“There is probably no better bet in sports than playing an underdog at home,” Moseman says. In fact, sports bettors must pick 52.4 percent winners just to break even.”

But that doesn’t mean you have to bet like a “square” and throw away your hard-earned money.

Moseman agrees and especially likes home underdogs.

5. So underdogs tend to be slightly undervalued – except by the sharps.”

Betting on football games; whether it’s through a local bookie, an offshore Internet site or a Nevada casino (still the only legal place in America to make football bets), most of us have done it or know of someone who has. And why not? We have unconditional love for the sport and betting $50 or $100 on a game adds an extra rush of adrenaline. Slim underdogs regularly win outright. “For example, if you have a $1,000 bankroll for the season, you should generally bet no more than $50 a game.”

1. “Because alcohol clouds your judgment and usually helps you to make rash decisions you usually wouldn’t otherwise make. “If you listen to their advice, you are sure to lose. On college you will be able to find different lines at different sports books. There are almost an infinite number of scenarios that can happen in a single football game.

“In an average season, fewer than one bettor in twelve turns a profit,” Gordon says.

10. Oakland comes to mind) seem like the Super Bowl. Giving 11 to 10 odds is almost always the cheapest price you can give.”

8.

“The standard bet requires gamblers to lay $11 for every $10 they want to win with the extra $1 or 10 percent known as the juice,” Konik says. Locks Don’t Exist – “Anyone who has watched sports for about a month realizes that the difference between winning and losing, especially against the spread, can be infinitesimally small,” Gordon says. Drinking and Gambling Don’t Mix – “There is a reason the casinos in Las Vegas supply you with free drinks while you are gambling,” Moseman says. Big underdogs often find ways to cover the spread and they rarely give up toward the end of a game in front of the home crowd.”

“The talking heads on TV know nothing about sports betting,” says Sevransky. “Most people prefer to bet on the ‘better’ team, the one that will probably win the game. Focus on Conferences – “The best way to win money betting football is to develop a niche and follow it closely,” Moseman advises. “He is not jaded by teams and does not bet with his heart. There is a wealth of information on the Internet; it is just up to you to find it and research it daily.”

So, how much are we gambling each football season?

Ted Sevransky, a well-known Las Vegas gambler and sports consultant with Sportsmemo.com, agrees.

And where does all that money go?

Although exact figures are impossible to calculate, according to Jimmy Vaccaro, widely considered to be Las Vegas’ most influential bookmaker, Americans probably wager more than $50 billion a year on NFL and college football combined. Not all games work according to this formula, but it is usually a good rule of thumb.”

Newspapers and popular sports sites routinely publish the lines or point spreads for games, and football insiders offer their picks to viewers each week on ESPN and other cable networks. Avoid Exotic Bets – “For very skilled handicappers, with a proven track record, there can, at least in theory, be value in betting parlays,” says Gordon on the type of bet that combines two or more individual wagers. “Thus, the bookies love and cherish the squares.”

So, how much should you bet a game?

7

College football

September 10, 2016 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in college football

Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.[16]Rugby league followed Camp’s example, and in 1906 introduced the play-the-ball rule, which greatly resembled Camp’s early scrimmage and center-snap rules. To Whittemore’s surprise, Camp agreed to coach the team himself, on the condition that he finish the season at Yale first.[63] As a result of Camp’s late arrival, Stanford played just three official games, against San Francisco’s Olympic Club and rival California. Committee Urges Football Playoff”. A selection committee of college football experts decides the participating teams. The game featured the season’s two best defenses and included a goal line stand by Vanderbilt to preserve the tie. Before they were nicknamed the “Trojans”, they were known as the USC Methodists.

Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the 20th century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game. August 17, 1999.

^ Alexander M. It was agreed that two games would be played on Harvard’s Jarvis baseball field in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 14 and 15, 1874: one to be played under Harvard rules, another under the stricter rugby regulations of McGill. (Audio help)

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Tom Davies runs against undefeated and unscored upon Georgia Tech in the 1918 game at Forbes Field.

With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner. The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to. “Too many bowl games? Nonsense”. It was during Rockne’s tenure that the annual Notre Dame-University of Southern California rivalry began. Reading Eagle. On November 13, 1875, Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won 4-0. p. 53.

^ Becky Riddle, “Stoll Field”, ExploreKYHistory, accessed February 4, 2015, http://explorekyhistory.ky.gov/items/show/153.

^ Jim L. Ingrassia, The Rise of Gridiron University: Higher Education’s Uneasy Alliance with Big-Time Football. “Sport Slants”. 2007. This game’s violence caused such an outcry that no games at all were played in 1871. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in 1889, the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.[16]

Brown enters the intercollegiate game in 1878.[25]

Following the introduction of rugby-style rules to American football, Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. Inside”) and Glenn Davis (known as “Mr. Teams can also go for “the two-point conversion” which is when a team will line up at the three-yard line and try to score. In 1966, rugby league introduced a four-tackle rule (changed in 1972 to a six-tackle rule) based on Camp’s early down-and-distance rules.

^ Evans, Harold (August 1940). Passing numbers dropped from an average of 18.9 attempts in 1951 to 13.6 attempts in 1955, while teams averaged just shy of 50 running plays per game. The Research Quarterly. lumbia joined the series in 1870, and by 1872 several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology.[3]

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It was voted that the officers constitute a committee to provide uniform suits in which to play what was called “association football”. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Ours, Robert M. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ a b c “BCS Chronology”. March 29, 1916 – via Google books. Due to scantness of records of the prior matches some will claim Virginia v. “Section 11–Extra Points.” 2008 Football Statisticians’ Manual. December 27, 1892. October 3, 2010.

^ a b c d e f g h i j Park, Roberta J (Winter 1984). In Baldwin City, Kansas, on November 22, 1890, college football was first played in the state of Kansas. The game featured no uniforms, no positions, and the rules were formulated before the game.[44]

It is thought that the first forward pass in football occurred on October 26, 1895 in a game between Georgia and North Carolina when, out of desperation, the ball was thrown by the North Carolina back Joel Whitaker instead of punted and George Stephens caught the ball.[48] On November 9, 1895 John Heisman executed a hidden ball trick utilizing quarterback Reynolds Tichenor to get Auburn’s only touchdown in a 6 to 9 loss to Vanderbilt. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing, LLC. On November 25, 1911 Kansas and Missouri played the first homecoming football game.[107] The game was “broadcast” play-by-play over telegraph to at least 1,000 fans in Lawrence, Kansas.[108] It ended in a 3-3 tie. Walter, who would enroll at Yale the next year, was torn between an admiration for Harvard’s style of play and the misery of the Yale defeat, and became determined to avenge Yale’s defeat. The highest seed receives automatic home field advantage. The two competing sanctioning bodies have some overlap, and several clubs are members of both organizations.

The Collegiate Sprint Football League governs nine teams, all in the northeast. Each school played its own variety of football. The first intercollegiate game between official varsity teams was played on November 22, 1901. The Walter Camp Foundation. Incidentally, rugby was to make a similar change to its scoring system 10 years later.[16]

Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. It was the first game in the south decided by a field goal.[49] Heisman later used the trick against Pop Warner’s Georgia team. “Tiny Maxwell and the Crisis of 1905: The Making of a Gridiron Myth” (PDF). Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship. The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. The Oklahoma Football Encyclopedia: 2nd Edition. In 1914, the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1869-1910.” National Football League. “Yellow Jackets-Cumberland Score Was Record One; Tops the List According to Statistics Compiled Showing All Scores Past the Century Mark”. Sports Publishing LLC. Woody Hayes led Ohio State to two national titles, in 1954 and 1957, and dominated the Big Ten conference, winning three Big Ten titles–more than any other school. For the current season of Bowl Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. Camp’s most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterback, was also passed in 1880. ACTIVE.com. Parker, decreed that American football was the appropriate athletic activity to train soldiers and rugby union was dropped.[87]

Football

Championship

Rutgers was first to extend the reach of the game. Football Immortals. Heisman pressed hardest for Cumberland to get the claim of champion. 2015 NCAA Football Records: Football Bowl Subdivision Records. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. PMID 4903389.

^ Watterson, John (2001). Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander, gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions. Princeton Alumni Weekly. If the kick was missed, the try did not score any points itself.

Contents

As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. The following season saw Vanderbilt execute a double pass play to set up the touchdown that beat Sewanee in a meeting of unbeatens for the SIAA championship. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football. 2012-05-14. TheGame.org. For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions.[147]

Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=College_football&oldid=738179815″

Several organizations operate college football programs outside the jurisdiction of the NCAA:

Events listed in italics have been discontinued.

November 30, 1905, saw Chicago defeat Michigan 2 to 0. These changes greatly reduced the potential for collision injuries.[101] Several coaches emerged who took advantage of these sweeping changes. 40: 717-724. (1995). The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death.[93] Georgia fullback Richard Von Albade Gammon notably died on the field from concussions received against Virginia in 1897, causing Georgia, Georgia Tech, and Mercer to suspend their football programs.

Beach volleyball

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CWS

The first bowl game was the 1902 Rose Bowl, played between Michigan and Stanford; Michigan won 49-0. The American retained the Big East’s automatic BCS bowl bid for the 2013 season, but lost this status in the CFP era.

[...]

Bronko Nagurski Trophy

Dick Butkus Award

Jim Thorpe Award

Doak Walker Award

Campbell Trophy

Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award

Home Depot Award

Ray Guy Award

John Mackey Award

College football expanded greatly during the last two decades of the 19th century. The semifinals are hosted by two of a group of six traditional bowl games often called the “New Year’s Six”, with semifinal hosting rotating annually among three pairs of games in the following order: Rose/Sugar, Orange/Cotton, and Fiesta/Peach. The last team from the non-AQ ranks to reach a BCS bowl game in the BCS era was Northern Illinois in 2012, which played in (and lost) the 2013 Orange Bowl.

Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional “mob football” played in England. Hickok Sports. It is in college football where a player’s performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. p. 52. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16

^ Men’s Intercollegiate Athletic Department of the University of Minnesota (1981). “N.C.A.A. 16 Stanford”. The Dallas Morning News. Tar Heel Times. The Kingsport Times. Tales from the Oregon Ducks Sideline. “The Evolution of School Spirit and Tradition at Oregon State University” (PDF). Selection for the playoffs is determined by a selection committee, although usually a team must have a 7-4 record to even be considered. Starting in 2013, non-seeded teams can only host a playoff game if both teams involved are unseeded; in such a matchup, the schools must bid for the right to host the game. Instead, it has a series of postseason “bowl games”. 2006-2007 Texas Almanac. Dartmouth won 91 to 0.[28]

Don Hutson in 1940.

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At the beginning of the first semester in the fall of ’90 the boys rooming at the dormitory on the campus of the U. The Panthers, led by freshman Tom Davies, defeated Georgia Tech 32 to 0. Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former. Los Angeles Times. John Roberts.

^ Robin Lester (Summer 1991). Boston Daily Globe. p. 8. (1916-10-15). Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ White, Gordon (January 8, 1979). 1895. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ Celizic, Mike (December 9, 2006). On the coaching staff of those 1944-1946 Army teams was future Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Vince Lombardi.[131][135]

In 1940, for the highest level of college football, there were only five bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton). Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development.[146]

The following was taken from the Silver & Gold newspaper of December 16, 1898. Colorado found much success in its early years, winning eight Colorado Football Association Championships (1894-97, 1901-08).

In 1864, at Trinity College, also a college of the University of Toronto, F. Baker beat Kansas 22-9.[19] On the 27th, Vanderbilt played Nashville (Peabody) at Athletic Park and won 40-0. Division III institutions also field teams, but do not offer any scholarships.

Growth of bowl games

See also: Bowl game

Growth of bowl

Field hockey

Championship

1904 saw big coaching hires in the south: Mike Donahue at Auburn, John Heisman at Georgia Tech, and Dan McGugin at Vanderbilt were all hired that year.

^ “Ten Yard Rule a Failure” New York Times, December 26, 1905

^ “New Football Rules Tested” Los Angeles Times, December 26, 1905

^ a b “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries”. Rutgers Through The Years. p. 128.

^ Langum, David J. The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. p. 70.

^ Gary Migdol. 201-209.

^ “Intercollegiate Football: The U.S.C. (In the NFL overtime is decided by a 15-minute sudden-death quarter, and regular season games can still end in a tie if neither team scores. “Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Foot Ball”. As a result of this meeting, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was formed in 1906. It was a recollection of the birth of Colorado football written by one of CU’s original gridders, John C. Lincoln Evening Journal. The team went 12-0, outscoring opponents 322 to 10. Harts had left to prospect for gold in the Arctic.[59][60] Organized football was first played in the territory on November 29, 1894 between the Oklahoma City Terrors and Oklahoma City High School. In 1881, the field was reduced in size to its modern dimensions of 120 by 531/3 yards (109.7 by 48.8 meters). Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team’s own particular code. MSNBC. McGill football game

College teams mostly play other similarly sized schools through the NCAA’s divisional system. By next season, Oklahoma coach John A. Georgia’s 1927 “dream and wonder team” defeated Yale for the first time. Retrieved October 11, 2009.

“College Football Rules Changes” (PDF). Bill Traughber. Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in 1878: a reduction from fifteen players to eleven. p. 186. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “100 years ago: Football fans enjoy mechanized reproduction of KU-MU game”. On October 12, 1929, Yale lost to Georgia in Sanford Stadium in its first trip to the south. ISBN 1-57167-116-1. Glenn “Pop” Warner coached at several schools throughout his career, including the University of Georgia, Cornell University, University of Pittsburgh, Stanford University, and Temple University.[121] One of his most famous stints was at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where he coached Jim Thorpe, who went on to become the first president of the National Football League, an Olympic Gold Medalist, and is widely considered one of the best overall athletes in history.[122][123] Warner wrote one of the first important books of football strategy, Football for Coaches and Players, published in 1927.[124] Though the shift was invented by Stagg, Warner’s single wing and double wing formations greatly improved upon it; for almost 40 years, these were among the most important formations in football. Though it was underutilized for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.[100] Another rule change banned “mass momentum” plays (many of which, like the infamous “flying wedge”, were sometimes literally deadly).

Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period. The inaugural champion was Ohio State University.[152] The College Football Playoff replaced the Bowl Championship Series, which had been used as the selection method to determine the national championship game participants since in the 1998 season.

The BCS ended after the 2013 season and, since the 2014 season, the FBS national champion has been determined by a four-team tournament known as the College Football Playoff (CFP). It was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Vincent’s College to a 40-0 victory.[61] In 1893, USC joined the Intercollegiate Football Association of Southern California (the forerunner of the SCIAC), which was composed of USC, Occidental College, Throop Polytechnic Institute (Cal Tech), and Chaffey College. pp. 11-13. April 15, 2011. MSN Encarta. Retrieved 2016-01-24.

Although rules for the high school, college, and NFL games are generally consistent, there are several minor differences. 1991 Pitt Football: University of Pittsburgh Football Media Guide. As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. What is absolutely certain is that on October 9, 1905, Roosevelt held a meeting of football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Suits of flannel were ultimately procured and paid for assessments on the members of the association and generous contributions from members of the faculty.

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History

See also: History of American football and History of Canadian football

An 1894 football game in Staunton, Virginia between VMI and Virginia Tech.

College football increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th and early 20th century. This article incorporates text from the McGill University Gazette (April 1874), two issues of The Montreal Gazette (14 May and 19 May 1874). Later in 1872, Stevens Tech became the fifth school to field a team. p. 12.

^ a b Ray Soldan (September 11, 1994). National Collegiate Athletic Association. Retrieved 2012-10-22.

^ “Parke H. 2006. It is still usually regarded as the first game of college football.[3][6][7][8] The game was played at a Rutgers field. Starting with the 2015 season, the NFL uses the 15-yard line as the line of scrimmage for placekick attempts, but the two-yard line for two-point attempts. Some coaches and officials questioned this rule change as it could lead to more injuries to the players as there will likely be more kickoff returns.[148] The rationale for the rule change was to help reduce dead time in the game.[149] The NFL returned its kickoff location to the 35-yard line effective in 2011; college football did not do so until 2012.

Several changes were made to college rules in 2011, all of which differ from NFL practice:[150]If a player is penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct for actions that occurred during a play ending in a touchdown by that team, but before the goal line was crossed, the touchdown will be nullified. Schaff himself was injured and unable to the play the game, but Yale won the game 3-0 nonetheless. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. The number grew to eleven in 1976. Lawrence Daily Journal. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Amos Alonzo Stagg and Football at Chicago”.

^ Edwin Pope. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. Church took over the coaching position in the fall for the rest of the season. Louis Post-Dispatch photograph of Brad Robinson, who threw the first legal forward pass and was the sport’s first triple threat

Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

College football outside the United States

See also: List of college football games played outside the United States

Soccer

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1917 saw the rise of another Southern team in Centre of Danville, Kentucky. That changed with the debut of the four-team College Football Playoff at the end of the 2014 season.

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

A pass is ruled complete if one of the receiver’s feet is inbounds at the time of the catch. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football into the distinct sport of American football.[16]

Map of Division I (A) FBS

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On 25 December 1894, Amos Alonzo Stagg’s Chicago Maroons agreed to play Camp’s Stanford football team in San Francisco in the first postseason intersectional contest, foreshadowing the modern bowl game.[66][67] Future president Herbert Hoover was Stanford’s student financial manager.[68] Chicago won 24 to 4.[69] Stanford won a rematch in Los Angeles on December 29 by 12 to 0.[70]

Rise of the South

The 10 FBS conferences are formally and popularly divided into two groups:

Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League (NFL), college football remained extremely popular throughout the Artic North of Spain[1] Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs – the highest level – playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000. The mass plays being now barred, skill on the football field is more in demand than mere weight and strength.

At the Division I FCS level, the teams participate in a 24-team playoff (most recently expanded from 20 teams in 2013) to determine the national championship. The IAAUS would get its current name of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in 1910,[98] which still sets rules governing the sport.[98][99]

1.7 From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

1.8 Modern college football (since 1958)

1.8.1 Growth of bowl games

1.8.2 Bowl Championship Series

1.8.3 College Football Playoff

By 1873, the college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game. Dubbed “The First Greatest Game of the Century,”[37] broke Michigan’s 56-game unbeaten streak and marked the end of the “Point-a-Minute” years.

The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics has jurisdiction over more than 80 college football teams, mostly in the midwest.

The National Junior College Athletic Association has jurisdiction over two-year institutions. OSU Alumni Association. Journal of Sport History, Vol. It was also the first scoreless tie in the history of the fledgling sport.[21]Yale football starts the same year and has its first match against Columbia, the nearest college to play football. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. November 22, 1893.

^ a b Migdol, Gary (1997). The Harvard students took to the rugby rules and adopted them as their own,[3][10][11] The games featured a round ball instead of a rugby-style oblong ball.[11] This series of games represents an important milestone in the development of the modern game of American football.[12][13] In October 1874, the Harvard team once again traveled to Montreal to play McGill in rugby, where they won by three tries.

On Thanksgiving Day 1903, a game was scheduled in Montgomery, Alabama between the best teams from each region of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association for an “SIAA championship game”, pitting Cumberland against Heisman’s Clemson. Ivy League Rugby Conference (2009-01-31). 18, No. On June 4, 1875, Harvard faced Tufts University in the first game between two American colleges played under rules similar to the McGill/Harvard contest, which was won by Tufts.[14] The rules included each side fielding 11 men at any given time, the ball was advanced by kicking or carrying it, and tackles of the ball carrier stopped play.[15]

In 1879, the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. Modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. Baird as the head football coach for the Michigan Wolverines football team. From Maverick to Mainstream: Cumberland School of Law, 1847-1997. Messrs Carney, Whittaker, Layton and others, who at that time constituted a majority of the male population of the University, called a meeting of the campus boys in the old medical building. How to Scout Football. The motion was rejected at that time but passed in 1880. It also became increasingly violent. open access publication - free to read

^ Gardner (1996)

^ Dupont, Kevin Paul (September 23, 2004). Rules were simple, violence and injury were common.[3][4] The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. Big Ten Conference – Official Athletic Site – Traditions. Though some coaches, such as General Robert Neyland at Tennessee, continued to eschew its use, several rules changes to the game had a profound effect on teams’ ability to throw the ball. Retrieved October 20, 2011.

^ John C. Los Angeles Herald. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear.

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Women

Vanderbilt’s line coach then was Wallace Wade, who in 1925 coached Alabama to the south’s first Rose Bowl victory. (Unlike in the United States, no junior colleges play football in Canada, and the sanctioning body for junior college athletics in Canada, CCAA, does not sanction the sport.) However, amateur football outside of colleges is played in Canada, such as in the Canadian Junior Football League. Yost, Michigan became the first “western” national power. Athens, Georgia: E. “Buff Milestones” (PDF). February 19, 1911. This computer system, which factored in newspaper polls, online polls, coaches’ polls, strength of schedule, and various other factors of a team’s season, led to much dispute over whether the two best teams in the country were being selected to play in the National Championship Game.

Sewanee’s 1899 “Iron Men.”

Map of NAIA

NCAA

Notable intersectional games

Controversy

Fencing

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NCAA football official site

Composite television schedule of NCAA football games

Statistics

College Football at d1sportsnet.com

College Football at Sports-Reference.com

Stassen College Football, comprehensive college football database

College Football Data Warehouse

Gridiron History

Rules

NCAA Football 2011 and 2012 Rules and Interpretations

Maps

Google Map of Division II Football Programs

Map of FBS Teams and Conferences

Division II and Division III of the NCAA also participate in their own respective playoffs, crowning national champions at the end of the season. Goddard were playing coaches for the first team which was put together by quarterback Arthur Carroll; who in turn volunteered to make the pants for the team and later became a tailor.[61] USC faced its first collegiate opponent the following year in fall 1889, playing St. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance, and the reverse play.[121] The youth football league, Pop Warner Little Scholars, was named in his honor.

– John C. In 1921 Bo McMillin-led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history. Starting with the third overtime, a one-point PAT field goal after a touchdown is no longer allowed, forcing teams to attempt a two-point conversion after a touchdown. The Lions traveled from New York City to New Brunswick on November 12, 1870 and were defeated by Rutgers 6 to 3. Pennsylvania”. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp’s original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. Each champion of these conferences is assured of a spot in a New Year’s Six bowl, though not necessarily in a semifinal game. The game was won by Tufts 1-0[9] Harvard beat McGill in the “Boston Game” on the Thursday and held McGill to a 0-0 tie on the Friday. p. 14.

^ Southern Inter-Collegiate Athletic Association (PDF). College Football Historical Society. The University of Alabama. Sports Publishing LLC.College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1895

^ Forgard, Benjamin. Paul Hornung, Notre Dame quarterback, did, however, win the Heisman in 1956, becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so.[136][137]

Following the enormous success of the 1958 NFL Championship Game, college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. (1969). At all other levels of football, plus all other touchback situations under NCAA rules, the ball is placed on the 20.

Among other rule changes in 2007, kickoffs were moved from the 35-yard line back five yards to the 30-yard line, matching a change that the NFL had made in 1994. Based on this ranking system, the No.1 and No.2 teams met each year in the national championship game. Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35-13 and helped establish the school as a national power. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada.

Kickoff during the 1916 Colorado – Utah game

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On November 13, 1887 the Virginia Cavaliers and Pantops Academy fought to a scoreless tie in the first organized football game in the state of Virginia.[42] Students at UVA were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim that some industrious ones organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871, just two years after Rutgers and Princeton’s historic first game in 1869. National Collegiate Athletic Association: 71-75.

^ Davis, Parke H. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Stanford Game-by-Game Results; 1892-1895″. The first game was played on San Francisco’s Haight Street Grounds on March 19, 1892 with Stanford winning 14-10. At the birth of cable television and cable sports networks like ESPN, there were fifteen bowls in 1980. College Football Data Warehouse. It also had the first two players from the Deep South selected first-team All-American in Walker Carpenter and Everett Strupper. 2007. William Dudley, a chemistry professor at Vanderbilt.[45] The original members were Alabama, Auburn, Georgia, Georgia Tech, North Carolina, Sewanee, and Vanderbilt. The annual National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision is then instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players.

Awards

Walter Camp, the “Father of American Football”, pictured here in 1878 as the captain of the Yale Football team

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On October 18, 1888, the Wake Forest Demon Deacons defeated the North Carolina Tar Heels 6 to 4 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of North Carolina.[43]

The situation came to a head in 1905 when there were 19 fatalities nationwide. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ a b MacCambridge (1999), pp 148

^ Vancil (2000), pp 30

^ Vancil (2000), pp 28-30

^ “A Brief History of the Heisman Trophy”. 2007. The IAAUS was the original rule making body of college football, but would go on to sponsor championships in other sports. College Football Data Warehouse. Journal of Sport History. Accessed 29 January 2007.

^ a b Parke H. Division I FBS schools use replay in virtually all games; replay is rarely used in lower division games. 17 (1).

^ Ratcliffe, Jerry (2008). April 16, 2007. “A Look Back at High School Football in 1900s Decade”.

^ Triumph Books. Retrieved 2007-03-21. Several major rivalries date from this time period.

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Virginia and the south on November 2, 1873 in Lexington between Washington and Lee and VMI. In the 1950s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following. ESPN. “Yale Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. An intercollegiate game was first played in the state of New York when Rutgers played Columbia on November 2, 1872. However, after a few years, the school began to feel the isolation of its newly adopted sport, which was not spreading as many had hoped. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.[125] The 1924 team featured the Four Horsemen backfield. British Columbia Rugby Union. A player could carry the ball only when being pursued.

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Florida in 1901.[54] A 7-game series between intramural teams from Stetson and Forbes occurred in 1894. In the thirty years from 1950 to 1980, seven bowl games were added to the schedule. Harvard University Sports Information Office. Retrieved September 11, 2012.

^ John Majors. In 1918, the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field–previously strict rules were in place allowing passes to only certain areas of the field.[103] Scoring rules also changed during this time: field goals were lowered to three points in 1909[7] and touchdowns raised to six points in 1912.[104]

Teams in each of these four divisions are further divided into various regional conferences.

In 1906 Vanderbilt defeated Carlisle 4 to 0, the result of a Bob Blake field goal.[115][116] In 1907 Vanderbilt fought Navy to a 6 to 6 tie. This “twenty” never played Columbia, but did play twice against Princeton.[24] Princeton won both games 6 to 0. 11 (3): 33.

^ Goldsmith, A. The BCS system was slightly adjusted in 2006, as the NCAA added a fifth game to the series, called the National Championship Game. They are then invited to a bowl game based on their conference ranking and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game. The game ended in an 11-11 tie causing many teams to claim the title. Augusta Computer Services. He also lacked the authority to abolish football and was, in fact, actually a fan of the sport and wanted to preserve it. Reeves had a crude leather helmet made by a shoemaker in Annapolis and wore it in the game after being warned by his doctor that he risked death if he continued to play football after suffering an earlier kick to the head.[30]

1902 football game between the University of Minnesota and the University of Michigan

Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.[6][7][16] As a youth, he excelled in sports like track, baseball, and association football, and after enrolling at Yale in 1876, he earned varsity honors in every sport the school offered.[16]

Early games

Main article: 1869 college football season

On December 14, 1889, Wofford defeated Furman 5 to 1 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of South Carolina. Stevens lost to Columbia, but beat both New York University and City College of New York during the following year.

Led by coach Fielding H. 2007. This situation continued until 1984, when several schools brought a suit under the Sherman Antitrust Act; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals. Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. However, both Group of Five teams selected for New Year’s Six bowls (Boise State in 2014 and Houston in 2015) won their games.

Official rules and notable rule distinctions

See also: American football rules

Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football. The Bowl Subdivision has historically not used an organized tournament to determine its champion, and instead teams compete in post-season bowl games. Nixon, also the school’s second captain. The Official National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Guide. Must Allow Colleges to Pay Athletes, Judge Rules”, New York Times, August 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/09/sports/federal-judge-rules-against-ncaa-in-obannon-case.html

National Collegiate Athletic Association

College football is a controversial institution within American higher education, where the amount of money involved–what people will pay for the entertainment provided–is a corrupting factor within universities that they are usually ill-equipped to deal with.[154][155] According to William E. Warner picked up the trick and later used it at Cornell against Penn State in 1897.[50] He then used it in 1903 at Carlisle against Harvard and garnered national attention.

The first USC football squad (1888). A (October 1913 – March 1914). Oregon finished the season with two additional losses and a tie, but went undefeated the following season, winning all four of its games under head coach Percy Benson.[79][80][81] In 1899, the Oregon football team left the state for the first time, playing the California Golden Bears in Berkeley, California.[77]

Homosexuality in American football

List of defunct college football teams

List of defunct college football conferences

List of historically significant college football games

List of sports attendance figures

Sports injury

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about gridiron football played at a collegiate level in the United States. College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South.[127]

Rifle

Championship

[...]

A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force

Skiing

Championships

Helping Georgia Tech’s claim to a title in 1917, the Auburn Tigers held undefeated, Chic Harley-led Big Ten champion Ohio State to a scoreless tie the week before Georgia Tech beat the Tigers 68 to 7. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges.

NCAA Division I Football Championship[151] – playoff for determining the national champion at the second highest level of college football, Division I FCS, from 1978 to present.

NCAA Division I FCS Consensus Mid-Major Football National Championship – awarded by poll from 2001- to 2007 for a subset of the second highest level of play in college football, FCS.

A night game between Harvard and Brown, September 25, 2009

The Athletic Association should now invigorate its base-ball and place it at par with its football team; and it certainly has the material with which to do it. The CFP is a Plus-One system, a concept that became popular as a BCS alternative following controversies in 2003 and 2004. Retrieved March 27, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. The University of Denver and the University of Utah joined the RMAC in 1910. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ a b c d e f g “No Christian End!” (PDF). p. 5.

^ A Ghastly Holocaust: Football Spectators Plunged into Molten Glass, The (Adelaide) Advertiser, (Friday 11 January 1901), p.6.

^ Twenty Score Persons Make Awful Plunge: Seventeen People Meet Most Awful Death: Two San Jose Men Die Amid Sizzling Shrieking Human Mass in Collapsed Factory at Big Game, The (San Jose) Evening News, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1, p.5.

^ Through a Roof to Death, The (Crawfordsville) Daily News-Review, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Spectators Fell Into Molten Glass: Thirteen Dead, One Hundred Injured by Collapse of a Roof Overlooking the Stanford-Berkeley Game at San Francisco, The (Spokane) Spokesman-Review, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1.

^ Death Reaps a Dread Harvest of Lives and Plunges City into Gloom, The San Francisco Call, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Eskanazi, J., “Sudden Death: Boys Fell to Their Doom in S.F.’s Forgotten Disaster” San Francisco Weekly News, 15 August 2012

^ a b “Timeline”. Davis. pp. 285-311. There was no limit to the number of players, but there were typically ten to fifteen per side. FOX Sports on MSN. Stanford played its 1915, 1916, and 1917 “Big Games” as rugby union against Santa Clara and California’s football “Big Game” in those years was against Washington, but both schools desired to restore the old traditions.[87] The onset of American involvement in World War I gave Stanford an out: in 1918, the Stanford campus was designated as the Students’ Army Training Corps headquarters for all of California, Nevada, and Utah, and the commanding officer, Sam M. The NFL, which previously treated the ball as dead during a conversion attempt–meaning that the attempt ended when the defending team gained possession of the football–adopted the college rule in 2015.

The two-minute warning is not used in college football, except in rare cases where the scoreboard clock has malfunctioned and is not being used.

There is an option to use instant replay review of officiating decisions. (1991). Retrieved 2009-02-18.

^ Nelson (1994), pp 48

^ “Big Ten History”. It ended when Stanford requested and Michigan agreed to end it with 8 minutes on the clock. The U of C should henceforth lead the state and possibly the west in athletic sports.

Cross Country

Men

Women

Wrestling

Championship

Map of NCAA Division III

Division I FBS National Championship Games

Main articles: Bowl Championship Series and College Football Playoff

Scoring table

Historical college football scoring[18]

Era

Touchdown

Field goal

Conversion (kick)

Conversion (touchdown)

Safety

Conversion safety

Defensive conversion

1883

2

5

4

-

1

-

-

1883-1897

4

5

2

-

2

-

-

1898-1903

5

5

1

-

2

-

-

1904-1908

5

4

1

-

2

-

-

1909-1911

5

3

1

-

2

-

-

1912-1957

6

3

1

-

2

-

-

1958-1987

6

3

1

2

2

1

-

1988-present

6

3

1

2

2

1

2

Note: For brief periods in the late 19th century, some penalties awarded one or more points for the opposing teams, and some teams in the late 19th and early 20th centuries chose to negotiate their own scoring system for individual games.

Expansion

Tennis

Men

Women

The rules committee considered widening the playing field to “open up” the game, but Harvard Stadium (the first large permanent football stadium) had recently been built at great expense; it would be rendered useless by a wider field. San Francisco Chronicle. The term “Big Game” was first used in 1900, when it was played on Thanksgiving Day in San Francisco. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ a b c “NFL History3039-1910″. Yale wins 3-0, Tommy Sherman scoring the first goal and Lew Irwin the other two.[22]

Soccer

Men

Women

games 1930-2010[144]

Year

# of games

1930

1

1940

5

1950

8

1960

8

1970

8

1980

15

1990

19

2000

25

2010

35

2014

College football playoff consist of 2 bowls and a champ game

Awards

Hall of Champions

Conferences

The first college football game in Oklahoma Territory occurred on November 7, 1895 when the ‘Oklahoma City Terrors’ defeated the Oklahoma Sooners 34 to 0. The Chicago Daily Tribune called it “the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies.”[31] Other Midwestern schools soon followed suit, including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Minnesota. ISBN 0-9648244-7-7.

^ a b Libby, Brian. The Wolverines: A Story of Michigan Football. Handbook of Southern Intercollegiate Track and Field Athletics. nfl.com. In the NFL a player is active until he is tackled or forced down by a member of the opposing team (down by contact).

The clock stops after the offense completes a first down and begins again–assuming it is following a play in which the clock would not normally stop–once the referee says the ball is ready for play. Beats Throop By a Score of 22 to 12 at Pasadena”. Ralph Turtinen, ed. Wallace William Wade’s 1925 Alabama team won the 1926 Rose Bowl after receiving its first national title and William Alexander’s 1928 Georgia Tech team defeated California in the 1929 Rose Bowl. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport later known as Rugby football. Another rule, unique to McGill, was to count tries (the act of grounding the football past the opposing team’s goal line; it is important to note that there was no end zone during this time), as well as goals, in the scoring. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ Greg Roza, Football in the SEC (Southeastern Conference), p. p. 15 – via Google books. p. 4.

^ “Stanford’s Football Coach Has Arrived”. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “History of the Football Helmet” from Past Time Sports. p. 15.

^ “Stanford Defeats Stagg’s Eleven”. p. D5.

^ a b “College Bowl Games”. Other important changes, formally adopted in 1910, were the requirements that at least seven offensive players be on the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap, that there be no pushing or pulling, and that interlocking interference (arms linked or hands on belts and uniforms) was not allowed. For the first time, it included all major conferences (ACC, Big East, Big 12, Big Ten, Pac-10, and SEC) and four major bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar and Fiesta). ISBN 978-0-7948-2647-5.

^ “Wake Forest: A Look Back”.

^ “Furman University – 2014 FB Record Book”. College Football Data Warehouse. p. 5. Deseret News. 100 Years of Golden Gopher Football. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ “1800s”. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860.[3]

New formations and play sets continued to be developed. reconnects with past, but bowl scene not the same”. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ Meacham, Scott (2006). November 27, 2011. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ “Kickoffs from 30 yard line could create more returns, injuries”. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. They decided to play with 15 players on each team. On May 30, 1879 Michigan beat Racine College 1-0 in a game played in Chicago. Atlanta Constitution. Six major bowl games (the Rose, Sugar, Cotton, Orange, Peach, and Fiesta) rotate on a three-year cycle as semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ “The History of Walter Camp”. The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength. Sportswriter Grantland Rice helped popularize the sport with his poetic descriptions of games and colorful nicknames for the game’s biggest players, including Notre Dame’s “Four Horsemen” backfield and Fordham University’s linemen, known as the “Seven Blocks of Granite”.[105]

A college that fields a team in the NCAA is not restricted from fielding teams in club or sprint football, and several colleges field two teams, a varsity (NCAA) squad and a club or sprint squad (no schools, as of 2015, field both club and sprint teams at the same time).

Single-division sports

Pacific Coast

Golf

Men

Women

One publication claims “The first scouting done in the South was in 1905, when Dan McGugin and Captain Innis Brown, of Vanderbilt went to Atlanta to see Sewanee play Georgia Tech.”[111]Fuzzy Woodruff claims Davidson was the first in the south to throw a legal forward pass in 1906. December 30, 1894. Retrieved April 6, 2011.

^ “The History of Homecoming”. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Johnson, Greg (2008-08-28). While Harvard’s voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play the rugby team of McGill University, from Montreal, in a two-game series. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the ‘Pioneer Period’; the years 1876-93 he called the ‘Period of the American Intercollegiate Football Association’; and the years 1894-1933 he dubbed the ‘Period of Rules Committees and Conferences’.[5]

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

2 Official rules and notable rule distinctions

3 Organization

4 Coaching

5 National championships

6 Team maps

7 Playoff games

8 Bowl games

8.1 Division I FBS National Championship Games

This system has been challenged often, beginning with an NCAA committee proposal in 1979 to have a four-team playoff following the bowl games.[153] However, little headway was made in instituting a playoff tournament until 2014, given the entrenched vested economic interests in the various bowls. This is where the name came into use, as it became known as the Rose Bowl Game. Evolvements of Early American Foot Ball: Through the 1890/91 Season. NFL.com. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 24

^ “Marching Band History”. He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. Washington and Lee won 4-2.[38] Some industrious students of the two schools organized a game for October 23, 1869 – but it was rained out.[39] Students of the University of Virginia were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim it organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871; but no record has been found of the score of this contest. Retrieved 2007-06-04.

^ “President Eliot on Football.” The School Journal, Volume 70, United Education Company, New York, Chicago, and Boston, February 18, 1905, p.188.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16-18

^ Bennett (1976), pp 20

^ Lewis, Guy M. In the post-season, if the teams are still tied, teams will play additional overtime periods until either team scores.)

Extra point tries are attempted from the three-yard line. Both Donahue and McGugin just came from the north that year, Donahue from Yale and McGugin from Michigan, and were among the initial inductees of the College Football Hall of Fame. It is claimed by Georgetown authorities as the game with the first ever “roving center” or linebacker when Percy Given stood up, in contrast to the usual tale of Germany Schulz.[56] The first linebacker in the South is often considered to be Frank Juhan.

Organization

See also

South

Inasmuch as Rugby football had been transplanted to Canada from England, the McGill team played under a set of rules which allowed a player to pick up the ball and run with it whenever he wished. The Boston Globe.

^ a b c d e f “Camp and His Followers: American Football 1876-1889″ (PDF). Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the 1950s were the only decade between 1920 and 1990 when the team did not win at least a share of the national title. open access publication - free to read

^ Patrick Dorsey (September 23, 2011). The NFL has a similar rule in the final minute of the half, but it applies only to specified violations against the offensive team. NCAA.com. Playing its first game on November 14 of that year against the Alliance Athletic Club, in which USC gained a 16-0 victory. At the 1882 rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. p. 64.

^ “Spotlight Athletics:”. “Vandy’s Great Victory Will Live In History”. Between 1890 and 1905, 330 college athletes died as a direct result of injuries sustained on the football field. Clemson, Cumberland, Kentucky, LSU, Mercer, Mississippi, Mississippi A&M (Mississippi State), Southwestern Presbyterian University, Tennessee, Texas, Tulane, and the University of Nashville joined the following year in 1895 as invited charter members.[46] The conference was originally formed for “the development and purification of college athletics throughout the South”.[47]

Volleyball

Men

Women

In 1909, the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference was founded, featuring four members: Colorado, Colorado College, Colorado School of Mines, and Colorado Agricultural College. Pantops Academy November 13, 1887 as the first game in Virginia.

Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

^ While Still the Nation’s Favorite Sport, Professional Football Drops in Popularity – Baseball and college football are next in popularity at the Harris Interactive website, accessed 28 January 2010.

^ “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries” (PDF). It appears here in its original form:

Rowing

Women

Star players that emerged in the early 20th century include Jim Thorpe, Red Grange, and Bronko Nagurski; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league. Though he lectured on eliminating and reducing injuries, he never threatened to ban football. The Coalition lasted for three years; however, several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases. Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the 1950s. p. 232.

^ David M. Organized competition in American football also exists at the collegiate level in Mexico (ONEFA), the UK (British Universities American Football League), Japan (Japan American Football Association, Koshien Bowl), and South Korea (Korea American Football Association).

On September 27, 1902, Georgetown beat Navy 4 to 0. Thus, only Division I wins (whether FBS, FCS, or FCS non-scholarship) are considered for playoff selection. In 2009, Boise State played TCU in the Fiesta Bowl, the first time two schools from non-BCS conferences played each other in a BCS bowl game. Retrieved March 24, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 63: 742-750.

^ “History”. “Two-point conversion turns 50.” The NCAA News. Retrieved 2011-10-06.

^ Steven Salzberg, “Football is corrupting America’s universities: it needs to go”, Forbes, November 26, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2011/11/26/football-is-corrupting-americas-universities-it-needs-to-go/

^ Jay Schalin, “Time for universities to punt football”, Washington Times, September 1, 2011, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/sep/1/time-for-universities-to-punt-football/?page=all

^ Laura Pappano, “How Big-Time Sports Ate College Life”, New York Times, January 20, 2012.

^ Jonah Newman, “Coaches, Not Presidents, Top Public-College Pay List”, Chronicle of Higher Education, May 16, 2014, http://chronicle.com/blogs/data/2014/05/16/coaches-not-presidents-top-public-college-pay-list/

^ One reference among many: Walt Bogdanich, “A Star Player Accused, and a Flawed Rape Investigation”, New York Times, April 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/16/sports/errors-in-inquiry-on-rape-allegations-against-fsu-jameis-winston.html

^ Gregg Doyel, “Time to pay college football players — changing times, money say so”, CBS Sports, September 25, 2013, http://www.cbssports.com/general/writer/gregg-doyel/23838595/its-time-pay-college-football-players—-changing-times-money-say-so

^ Rod Gilmore, “College football players deserve pay for play”, ESPN College Football, January 17, 2007, http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/columns/story?id=2733624

^ Taylor Branch, “The Shame of College Sports”, The Atlantic, October, 2011, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/10/the-shame-of-college-sports/308643/

^ Ben Strauss and Marc Tracy, “N.C.A.A. The only way to score was still to bat or kick the ball through the opposing team’s goal, and the game was played in two 45 minute halves on fields 140 yards long and 70 yards wide. It took place at Hamilton Park in New Haven and was the first game in New England. April 27, 1924.

^ Dan McGugin (1907). NCAA. Retrieved 2008-04-06.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 19-22

^ Vancil (2000), pp 24-29

^ a b c MacCambridge (1999), pp 124

^ “A Look Back at the Southwest Conference”. In the NFL both feet must be inbounds.

A player is considered down when any part of his body other than the feet or hands touches the ground or when the ball carrier is tackled or otherwise falls and loses possession of the ball as he contacts the ground with any part of his body, with the sole exception of the holder for field goal and extra point attempts. In 1934, the rules committee removed two major penalties–a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone–and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. “Changing seasons: Y. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ a b “The History of Football”. Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.[132]

The establishment of the CFP followed a tumultuous period of conference realignment in Division I. p. 21. Lawrence Journal-World. An invitation was also extended to Los Angeles High School.[62]

College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. These games are played from mid-December to early January and most of the later bowl games are typically considered more prestigious.

1895 football game between Auburn and Georgia.

Walter Camp: Father of American football

Trampoline

Championship

Division I sports

Softball

Championship/WCWS

The first intercollegiate game in the state of Vermont happened on November 6, 1886 between Dartmouth and Vermont at Burlington, Vermont. It was also the first time one team scored over 100 points and the opposing team was shut out.[26] The next week, Princeton outscored Lafayette by 140 to 0.[27]

The Big Game between Stanford and California was played as rugby union from 1906 to 1914.

The 1905 season marked the first meeting between Stanford and USC. From 1901 to 1905, Michigan had a 56-game undefeated streak that included a 1902 trip to play in the first college football bowl game, which later became the Rose Bowl Game. Amos Alonzo Stagg introduced such innovations as the huddle, the tackling dummy, and the pre-snap shift.[102] Other coaches, such as Pop Warner and Knute Rockne, introduced new strategies that still remain part of the game.

Further elated by the excitement of McGill’s version of football, Harvard challenged its closest rival, Yale, to which the Bulldogs accepted. Division II primarily consists of smaller public and private institutions that offer fewer scholarships than those in Division I. The game suffered from disorganization and the players kicked and battled each other as much as the ball. Losses to an FBS team count against their playoff eligibility, while wins against a Division II opponent do not count towards playoff consideration. September 14, 1923.

^ cf. The New York Times. Spectators from Princeton also carried the game back home, where it quickly became the most popular version of football.[3]

On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in 1874. Retrieved June 11, 2011.

^ “NCAA Division I Football Championship”. For its first thirty years, the RMAC was considered a major conference equivalent to today’s Division I, before 7 larger members left and formed the Mountain States Conference (also called the Skyline Conference).

Southwest

Field hockey

Championship

November 1890 was an active time in the sport. During that game, a large group of men and boys, who were observing from the roof of the nearby S.F. The high school won 24 to 0.[59]

Knute Rockne

Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University (1869-1909) opposing football in 1905.[91]

Penn’s Athletic Association was looking to pick “a twenty” to play a game of football against Columbia. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2012.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to College football.

Wrestling

Championship

Started in the 2014 season, four Division I FBS teams are selected at the end of regular season to compete in a playoff for the FBS national championship. Royal went on to teach the offense to other coaches, including Bear Bryant at Alabama, Chuck Fairbanks at Oklahoma and Pepper Rodgers at UCLA; who all adapted and developed it to their own tastes.[142] The strategic opposite of the wishbone is the spread offense, developed by professional and college coaches throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Joseph M. Web.ebscohost.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. When Heisman left Tech after 1919, his shift was still employed by protege William Alexander.

At the Division I FBS level, teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games during the season (teams that play 13 games in a season, which is allowed for Hawaii and any of its home opponents, must win 7 games). “Princeton Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. In the rankings of the most victorious programs, Michigan, Texas, and Notre Dame are ranked first, second, and third in total wins.

College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. Retrieved March 7, 2015.

^ “The Football Game That Changed the South”. Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College. Consequently, Stanford is USC’s oldest existing rival.[86] The Big Game between Stanford and Cal on November 11, 1905 was the first played at Stanford Field, with Stanford winning 12-5.[63]

Further notes

“The Invention Of Football”. This game is commonly referred to as “the game that changed the south.”[120] Wade followed up the next season with an undefeated record and Rose Bowl tie. The Walter Camp Football Foundation continues to select All-American teams in his honor.[17]

From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

The 1894 Harvard-Yale game, known as the “Hampden Park Blood Bath”, resulted in crippling injuries for four players; the contest was suspended until 1897. There has been serious discussion about making student-athletes university employees to allow them to be paid.[159][160][161][162]. 2001. At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on the Football Association’s rules than the rules of the recently founded Rugby Football Union, was drawn up for intercollegiate football games.[3]

During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces, some playing in Europe during the war. By 1950, three more had joined that number and in 1970, there were still only eight major college bowl games. This arrangement is contractually locked in until the 2026 season.

1906 St. Although before the mid-1920s most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest, the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success. The new NCAA rule applies to penalties on both sides of the ball.

Players lined up outside the tackle box–more specifically, those lined up more than 7 yards from the center–will now be allowed to block below the waist only if they are blocking straight ahead or toward the nearest sideline.

On placekicks, no offensive lineman can now be engaged by more than two defensive players. The game between West Virginia and Pittsburgh on October 8, 1921, saw the first live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W. The undefeated 1904 Vanderbilt team scored an average of 52.7 points per game, the most in college football that season, and allowed just four points.

Coaches of the era

Glenn “Pop” Warner

Bowl games

Main articles: Bowl game and List of college bowl games

Meanwhile, John H. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play. The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences–the Pac-10 and Big Ten–meaning that it had limited success. The trophy recognizes the nation’s “most outstanding” college football player and has become one of the most coveted awards in all of American sports.[134]

Map of NCAA Division II

Heisman Trophy

Maxwell Award

Walter Camp Award

Outland Trophy

Associated Press Player of the Year

Johnny Rodgers Award

Fred Biletnikoff Award

Lou Groza Award

Lombardi Award

Rowing

Women

Camp’s new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. Its result was “a great surprise to the sporting world.”[117] Commodore fans celebrated by throwing some 3,000 seat cushions onto the field. The team leading after both possessions is declared the winner. p. 3. On 1 January 1902, Yost’s dominating 1901 Michigan Wolverines football team agreed to play a 3-1-2 team from Stanford University in the inaugural “Tournament East-West football game what is now known as the Rose Bowl Game by a score of 49-0 after Stanford captain Ralph Fisher requested to quit with eight minutes remaining.

The University of Oregon began playing American football in 1894 and played its first game on March 24, 1894, defeating Albany College 44-3 under head coach Cal Young.[77][78][79] Cal Young left after that first game and J.A. (2007). Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed, but there was plenty of physical contact between players. “John Franklin Crowell, Methodism, and the Football Controversy at Trinity College, 1887-1894″ (PDF). open access publication - free to read

^ “Mansfield, Pennsylvania – It happened one night – First Football under lights – Mansfield PA 1892″. Division I generally consists of the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities, and (with the exception of a few conferences such as the Pioneer Football League) more athletic scholarships. p. 116.

^ “Princeton-Chicago football game is broadcast across the country”.

^ George Allen. Rockne returned to coach the team in 1918, and devised the powerful Notre Dame Box offense, based on Warner’s single wing. CUBuffs.com reprint of Silver & Gold article. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association. Football’s Greatest Coaches. In the first two seasons of the CFP, the Group of Five has yet to place a team in a semifinal. open access publication - free to read

^ a b “Brown Calls Vanderbilt ’06 Best Eleven South Ever Had”. The champions of these six conferences, along with two “at-large” selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ “Likes Yost’s Manner: President Jordan of Leland Stanford University Gives His Opinion of the Coach”. Also, rules were changed to add the champions of five additional conferences (Conference USA [C-USA], the Mid-American Conference [MAC], the Mountain West Conference [MW], the Sun Belt Conference and the Western Athletic Conference [WAC]), provided that said champion ranked in the top twelve in the final BCS rankings, or was within the top 16 of the BCS rankings and ranked higher than the champion of at least one of the “BCS conferences” (also known as “AQ” conferences, for Automatic Qualifying).[147] Several times since this rule change was implemented, schools from non-AQ conferences have played in BCS bowl games. Professional Football Researchers Association. Nixon (1898-12-16). Four new bowl games were created: the Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, the Sun Bowl in 1935, and the Cotton Bowl in 1937. “College Football”. In the NFL the clock does not explicitly stop for a first down.

Overtime was introduced in 1996, eliminating ties. For example, the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games. Emory Bellard, an assistant coach under Darrell Royal at the University of Texas, developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone. Arlin announced that year’s Backyard Brawl played at Forbes Field on KDKA. Every play is subject to booth review with coaches only having one challenge. For the 2009 season, there were 34 bowl games, so 68 of the 120 Division I FBS teams were invited to play at a bowl. In 1936, the Associated Press began its weekly poll of prominent sports writers, ranking all of the nation’s college football teams. heisman.com. USC Trojans. Mcgill.ca. The History of Sports. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ McCann, Michael C. Watterson, “Inventing Modern Football”, American Heritage magazine, June 1988

^ Vancil (2000), pp 17

^ Vancil (2000) pp 22

^ “NFL History 1911-1920″. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. If they are successful, they receive two points, if they are not, then they receive zero points. Nine out of ten Heisman Trophy winners in the 1950s were runners. Jarvis Field was at the time a patch of land at the northern point of the Harvard campus, bordered by Everett and Jarvis Streets to the north and south, and Oxford Street and Massachusetts Avenue to the east and west. Grantland Rice cited this event as the greatest thrill he ever witnessed in his years of watching sports.[112] Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin in Spalding’s Football Guide’s summation of the season in the SIAA wrote “The standing. LA 84 Foundation: 54-57. Several times in 1883, Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns, two points for safeties, and five for field goals. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. “From Football to Rugby–and Back, 1906-1919: The University of California-Stanford University Response to the “Football Crisis of 1905″” (PDF). open access publication - free to read

^ DeLassus, David. In 1910 Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie.[116]

Institutions

Baseball

Championship/CWS

Football teams in Division I are further divided into the Bowl Subdivision (consisting of the largest programs) and the Championship Subdivision. Other games came along and used the term “bowl”, whether the stadium was shaped like a bowl or not.

Basketball

Men

Women

v

t

e

The 1950s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs. New York Times. The 1917 team was the first national champion from the South, led by a powerful backfield. It was agreed that the No.1 and No.2 ranked teams gave up their prior bowl tie-ins and were guaranteed to meet in the national championship game, which rotated between the three participating bowls. Retrieved 2008-01-16.

^ A compilation of seven sources:

“History.” 2009 Baylor Football Media Almanac. As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games (a situation known as a tie-in), match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare. The Terrors were a mix of Methodist college students and high schoolers.[58] The Sooners did not manage a single first down. In addition, if the defensive team gains possession, but then moves backwards into the end zone and is stopped, a one-point safety will be awarded to the offense, although, unlike a real safety, the offense kicks off, opposed to the team charged with the safety. Journals.humankinetics.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. NFL.com. Overtime for regular season games in the NFL began with the 1974 season. Dartmouth played its own version called “Old division football”, the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s. Therefore, college football is generally considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States; one step ahead of high school competition, and one step below professional competition. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “FBS College Football History”. Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. But no record has been found of the score of this contest. November 27, 1941.

^ “Homecoming 2015″. The two-point conversion was not implemented in the NFL until 1994, but it had been previously used in the old American Football League (AFL) before it merged with the NFL in 1970.

The defensive team may score two points on a point-after touchdown attempt by returning a blocked kick, fumble, or interception into the opposition’s end zone. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent.

1.3 Scoring table

1.4 Expansion

1.4.1 East

1.4.2 Mid West

1.4.3 South

1.4.4 Southwest

1.4.5 Pacific Coast

1.4.6 Mountain West

Boxing

Championship

Map of NJCAA

and championships

The first nighttime football game was played in Mansfield, Pennsylvania on September 28, 1892 between Mansfield State Normal and Wyoming Seminary and ended at halftime in a 0-0 tie.[29] The Army-Navy game of 1893 saw the first documented use of a football helmet by a player in a game. p. 179.

^ a b Mal Florence et al., The Trojan Heritage, 2004 USC Football Media Guide, USC Athletic Department, pp. The next year in 1901, Yost was hired by Charles A. reprinted from Official Super Bowl XXXIII Game Program.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 46-48

^ Vancil (2000), pp 56

^ Bennett (1976), Appendix pp 209-217

^ a b Call, Jeff (December 20, 2006). It was his last game as Clemson head coach.[57]

Cross Country

Men

Women

The 1905 Utah football team

American football at Oregon State University started in 1893 shortly after athletics were initially authorized at the college. The annual Big Game between Stanford and California continued as rugby, with the winner invited by the British Columbia Rugby Union to a tournament in Vancouver over the Christmas holidays, with the winner of that tournament receiving the Cooper Keith Trophy.[87][88][89]

Institutions

Baseball

Championship/CWS

Bowl Championship Series

Main article: Bowl Championship Series

See also: NCAA Division I Football Championship

The University of Colorado began playing American football in 1890. Atlanta Constitution. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “NCAA Football Rules Committee Votes To Restore Plays While Attempting To Maintain Shorter Overall Game Time”. Also in 1887, two paid officials–a referee and an umpire–were mandated for each game. One conference champion from this group receives a spot in a New Year’s Six game. Echoes of Oklahoma Sooners Football: The Greatest Stories Ever Told. NFL Enterprises LLC. These deaths could be attributed to the mass formations and gang tackling that characterized the sport in its early years.

Colorado’s First football team in 1890.

Knute Rockne rose to prominence in 1913 as an end for the University of Notre Dame, then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school. 2006. It was the first time organized football played in the state of Tennessee.[20] The 29th also saw the first instance of the Army-Navy Game. 2007. Navy won 24-0.

Listen to this article (info/dl)

On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey) in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football. Smith. Professional Football Researchers Association. Tech center Bum Day was the first player on a Southern team ever selected first-team All-American by Walter Camp.

College Football Playoff

Main article: College Football Playoff

In 1907 at Champaign, Illinois Chicago and Illinois played in the first game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band.[106] Chicago won 42-6. Rutgers won by a score of six to four. The Division I National Championship game is held in Frisco, Texas.

Heisman shift

In 1906, citing concerns about the violence in American Football, universities on the West Coast, led by California and Stanford, replaced the sport with rugby union.[87] At the time, the future of American football was very much in doubt and these schools believed that rugby union would eventually be adopted nationwide.[87] Other schools fllowed suit and also made the switch included Nevada, St. At the first The Game (as the annual contest between Harvard and Yale came to be named) the future “father of American football” Walter Camp was among the 2000 spectators in attendance. “Teddy Roosevelt’s Role in the 1905 Football Controversy”. Associated Press. Minnesota won 2 to 0.[36] It was the first game west of the Mississippi River.

A college football game between Texas Tech and Navy

Power Five – Five of the six AQ conferences of the BCS era, specifically the ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC. August 22, 1900. December 18, 1930. Retrieved 13 October 2011.

^ “Tarheels Credited With Throwing First Forward Pass”. D. This allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans. Without the Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to a bowl game, it would be difficult to decide which two teams should play for the national title.

Harvard-McGill (1874)

Main article: 1874 Harvard vs. Davis ’93 On Harvard Football”. dartmo.com. Stetson beat Florida Agricultural College at Lake City, one of the four forerunners of the University of Florida, 6-0, in a game played as part of the Jacksonville Fair.[55]

Softball

Championship/WCWS

Soccer

Men

Women

1.5 Violence, formation of NCAA

1.6 Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

1.6.1 Rise of the South

1.6.1.1 Heisman shift

1.6.1.2 Notable intersectional games

1 History

1.1 Rugby Football in England and Canada

1.2 American college football

1.2.1 Early games

1.2.2 Harvard-McGill (1874)

1.2.3 Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

1.2.4 Walter Camp: Father of American football

Playoff games

Columbia University was the third school to field a team. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 39

^ Vancil (2000), pp 41-45

^ MacCambridge (1999) pp 172

^ MacCambridge (1999), pp 171

^ Bennett (1976) pp 56

^ Barnidge, Tom (2000). Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition, housing, and books.[2]

Map of Division I (AA) FCS

East

Utilizing the “jump shift” offense, John Heisman’s Georgia Tech Golden Tornado won 222 to 0 over Cumberland on October 7, 1916, at Grant Field in the most lopsided victory in college football history.[114] Tech went on a 33-game winning streak during this period. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Professional Football Researchers Association. 16: 583. 256 players are selected annually. That game was so lopsided that the game was not played annually until 1916, when the Tournament of Roses decided to reattempt the postseason game. From 1980 to 2008, an additional 20 bowl games were added to the schedule.[144][145] Some have criticized this growth, claiming that the increased number of games has diluted the significance of playing in a bowl game. In the NFL, the same foul would result in a penalty on the conversion attempt or ensuing kickoff, at the option of the non-penalized team.

If a team is penalized in the final minute of a half and the penalty causes the clock to stop, the opposing team now has the right to have 10 seconds run off the clock in addition to the yardage penalty. Stanford: Home of Champions. The CFP is a four-team tournament whose participants are chosen and seeded by a 13-member selection committee. In 1952, the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights. Frank Suffel and Henry H. American athletes of the century”. Retrieved 2007-08-23.

^ “Knute Rockne”. p. 4.

^ “USC Football Heads To Bay Area To Face No. Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to 20. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called “Football Fightum”, for whom they conducted funeral rites. Outside”) both won the Heisman Trophy, in 1945 and 1946 respectively. Camp’s innovations in the area of point scoring influenced rugby union’s move to point scoring in 1890. This college rule was added in 1988. Students and alumni began to clamor for a return to American football to allow wider intercollegiate competition.[87] The pressure at rival California was stronger (especially as the school had not been as successful in the Big Game as they had hoped), and in 1915 California returned to American football. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ DeLassus, David. Nelson. In 1995, the Coalition was replaced by the Bowl Alliance, which reduced the number of bowl games to host a national championship game to three–the Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange Bowls–and the participating conferences to five–the ACC, SEC, Southwest, Big Eight, and Big East. Princeton won 21-18 in a hotly contested game which had Princeton dubbed the “Team of Destiny.”[110]

The BCS selection committee used a complicated, and often controversial, computer system to rank all Division 1-FBS teams and the top two teams at the end of the season played for the National Championship. Saperecom. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field (now Vanderbilt Stadium), the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football. Starting with the 2006 season, a fifth game–simply called the BCS National Championship Game–was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game. If the teams remain tied, overtime periods continue, with a coin flip determining the first possession. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “Series of rules changes approved”. and Pacific Glass Works, fell into the fiery interior of the building when the roof collapsed, resulting in 13 dead and 78 injured.[71][72][73][74][75] On December 4, 1900, the last victim of the disaster (Fred Lilly) died, bringing the death toll to 22; and, to this day, the “Thanksgiving Day Disaster” remains the deadliest accident to kill spectators at a U.S. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Sports Information Office. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools. This happened in the final year of the Bowl Alliance, with Michigan winning the 1998 Rose Bowl and Nebraska winning the 1998 Orange Bowl. Sumner (1990). (California’s two-year institutions are not under NJCAA jurisdiction and only compete for state championships.)

Club football, a sport in which student clubs run the teams instead of the colleges themselves, is overseen by two organizations: the National Club Football Association and the Intercollegiate Club Football Federation. For other uses, see College football (disambiguation).

“NCAA football” redirects here. The WAC, after seeing all but two of its football members leave, dropped football after the 2012 season. Later in 1870, Princeton and Rutgers played again with Princeton defeating Rutgers 6-0. Finally, on December 28, 1905, 62 schools met in New York City to discuss rule changes to make the game safer. “Old Division Football, The Indigenous Mob Soccer Of Dartmouth College (pdf)” (PDF). In the NFL, only scoring plays, turnovers, the final 2:00 of each half and all overtime periods are reviewed, and coaches are issued two challenges (with the option for a 3rd if the first two are successful).

Starting in the 2012 season, the ball is placed on the 25-yard line following a touchback on a kickoff. It is recalled memorably with the phrase “… and on the seventh day they rested.”[51][52]Grantland Rice called them “the most durable football team I ever saw.”[53]

Durung 12 seasons of playing rugby union, Stanford was remarkably successful: the team had three undefeated seasons, three one-loss seasons, and an overall record of 94 wins, 20 losses, and 3 ties for a winning percentage of .816. Current Events, 00113492, 11/14/2011, Vol. Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to “spread” the field both horizontally and vertically.[143] Some teams have managed to adapt with the times to keep winning consistently. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1911-1920.” National Football League. Journal of Sport History. Yale initially refused to join this association because of a disagreement over the number of players to be allowed per team (relenting in 1879) and Rutgers were not invited to the meeting. Retrieved March 13, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2008-10-06.

^ a b c Bennett (1976), pp 20-21

^ “ESPN.com: Top N. Associated Press. ISBN 978-0873970556.

^ “Harvard Football Timeline”. Leggett, based on the Football Association’s first set of rules, which were an early attempt by the former pupils of England’s public schools, to unify the rules of their public schools games and create a universal and standardized set of rules for the game of football and bore little resemblance to the American game which would be developed in the following decades. He led his team to an impressive 105-12-5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in 1931. “Gridiron gridlock: Citing research, Tufts claims football history is on its side”. At-large teams could be chosen from any of the Division I conferences, though only one selection–Utah in 2005–came from a non-BCS affiliated conference. “Sewanee, long-lost member of the SEC”.

^ “On the 7th Day They Rested” (PDF).

^ “Grantland Rice”. The game features prominently in Vanderbilt’s history.[118] That same year, Alabama upset Penn 9 to 7.[119]

Ice hockey

Men

Women

In 1935, New York City’s Downtown Athletic Club awarded the first Heisman Trophy to University of Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger, who was also the first ever NFL Draft pick in 1936. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Retrieved February 9, 2015.

^ Melvin I. Football came back in 1872, when Columbia played Yale for the first time. The man with the ball could be tackled, although hitting, tripping, “hacking” (shin-kicking) and other unnecessary roughness was prohibited. “1958 Colts remember the ‘Greatest Game’”. Chicago Tribune. Although the NCAA publishes lists of claimed FBS-level national champions in its official publications, it has never recognized an official FBS national championship; this policy continues even after the establishment of the College Football Playoff (which is not directly run by the NCAA) in 2014. “Southeastern Conference”. He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.[121][126]

Football

Championship

9 Controversy

10 College football outside the United States

11 Awards

12 See also

13 References

14 Further notes

15 External links

15.1 Statistics

15.2 Rules

15.3 Maps

Mid West

References

Division II

After the Bowl Championship Series, additional all-star bowl games round out the post-season schedule through the beginning of February.

Map of CCCAA

The University of Southern California first fielded an American football team in 1888. Nixon was elected president and Holden secretary of the association.

After leaving Yale in 1882, Camp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in 1925. The Anatomy of a Game. Kirwan, chancellor of the University of Maryland System and co-director of the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, “We’ve reached a point where big-time intercollegiate athletics is undermining the integrity of our institutions, diverting presidents and institutions from their main purpose.”[156] Football coaches often make more than the presidents of their universities which employ them.[157] Athletes are alleged to receive preferential treatment both in academics and when they run afoul of the law.[158] Although in theory football is an extra-curricular activity engaged in as a sideline by students, it generates a substantial profit, from which the athletes receive no direct benefit. Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. Retrieved March 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 20

^ “WorldCat entry for Football for Coaches and Players”. The first western team to travel east was the 1881 Michigan team, which played at Harvard, Yale and Princeton.[32][33] The nation’s first college football league, the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives (also known as the Western Conference), a precursor to the Big Ten Conference, was founded in 1895.[34]

Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as “football”, played at public schools in England in the mid-19th century. November 7, 1886. Accessed March 11, 2015

^ Will Perry (1974). The game was essentially soccer with 20-man sides, played on a field 400 by 250 feet. Football: The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession. pp. A3.

^ Alex Lynn (November 25, 1906). In 1992, seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the Bowl Coalition, which attempted to arrange an annual No.1 versus No.2 matchup based on the final AP poll standings. Its primary restriction is that all players must weigh less than the average college student (that threshold is set, as of 2015, at 172 pounds/78 kg).

The first game where one team scored over 100 points happened on October 25, 1884 when Yale routed Dartmouth 113-0. Retrieved 2006-11-29.

^ “1872 Rutgers Scarlet Knights Schedule and Results”. When a game goes to overtime, each team is given one possession from its opponent’s twenty-five yard line with no game clock, despite the one timeout per period and use of play clock. The Strode Publishers. “CHC- Vandy Ties Michigan in 1922″.

^ “Alabama vs. While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late 1950s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties.[138][139][140]

Ice hockey

Men

Rugby Football in England and Canada

American football historian Parke H. The notorious V was then in vogue, which gave a heavy team too much advantage. The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in 1915. being afflicted with a super-abundance of penned up energy, or perhaps having recently drifted from under the parental wing and delighting in their newly found freedom, decided among other wild schemes, to form an athletic association. open access publication - free to read

^ “Football Squads Begin practice”. Nixon, Silver & Gold, December 16, 1898[90]

Mountain West

Ice hockey

Men

Women

Field hockey

Championship

Basketball

Men

Women

American college football

Lacrosse

Men

Women

In the early 1930s, the college game continued to grow, particularly in the South, bolstered by fierce rivalries such as the “South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Virginia and North Carolina and the “Deep South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Georgia and Auburn. As reasons for the change, the school cited rule change back to American football, the overwhelming desire of students and supporters to play American football, interest in playing other East Coast and Midwest schools, and a patriotic desire to play an “American” game.[87] California’s return to American football increased the pressure on Stanford to also change back in order to maintain the rivalry. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point, bringing Army back-to-back national titles in 1944 and 1945 under coach Red Blaik. The President’s sons were also playing football at the college and secondary levels at the time.[95]

The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. University of Illinois. Retrieved March 24, 2015.

^ “Concise Encyclopedia of Tufts History”.

^ “Penn Football:Origins To 1901″.

^ Mark F. 1, 2007, ISBN 1-4042-1919-6.

^ Bailey, John Wendell (1924). 111, Issue 8

Brian M. For the video game series, see NCAA Football series. The team also played exhibition games against two Los Angeles area teams that Stanford does not include in official results.[64][65] Camp returned to the East Coast following the season, then returned to coach Stanford in 1894 and 1895.

The 1930s saw growth in the passing game. In 1887, game time was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. Possessions alternate with each overtime, until one team leads the other at the end of the overtime. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ “The History of the NCAA”. The rules that they agreed upon were essentially those of rugby union at the time with the exception that points be awarded for scoring a try, not just the conversion afterwards (extra point). Pitt won 21-13.[109] On October 28, 1922, Princeton and Chicago played the first game to be nationally broadcast on radio. The Yale team was coached and captained by David Schley Schaff, who had learned to play football while attending Rugby school. 2007-02-14. On October 20, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City to codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. Retrieved December 27, 2011.

^ Sciullo Jr, Sam, ed. Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from 1889 through 1924. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “Florida Power:The Early Years”. Known as the “Iron Men”, with just 13 men they had a six-day road trip with five shutout wins over Texas A&M; Texas; Tulane; LSU; and Ole Miss. Honus Craig then ran in the winning touchdown.

Golf

Men

Women

As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the 1930s, college football garnered increased national attention. McGill

NCAA Division II Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the third highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NCAA Division III Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the fourth highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NAIA National Football Championship -playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.

NJCAA National Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Junior College Athletic Association.

CSFL Championship – Champions of the Collegiate Sprint Football League, a weight restricted football sport.

Team maps

Modern college football (since 1958)

Rowing

Women

Partly as a compromise between both bowl game and playoff supporters, the NCAA created the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) in 1998 in order to create a definitive National Championship game for college football. The term “bowl” originates from the shape of the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California, which was built in 1923 and resembled the Yale Bowl, built in 1915. The other three current FBS independents, Army, BYU, and Massachusetts, are also considered to be part of this group. Princeton won that game by a score of 8 – 0. The rules committee legalized the forward pass instead. The Big East split into two leagues in 2013; the schools that did not play FBS football reorganized as a new non-football Big East Conference, while the FBS member schools that remained in the original structure joined with several new members and became the American Athletic Conference. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ Smith, R.A. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Seventy-four to nothing”. Bernstein. Kansas Historical Quarterly. p. 3.

^ “Grantland Rice Tells Of Greatest Thrill In Years Of Watching Sport”. The two teams agreed to play under a set of rules called the “Concessionary Rules”, which involved Harvard conceding something to Yale’s soccer and Yale conceding a great deal to Harvard’s rugby. The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) was founded on December 21, 1894, by Dr. The NCAA Football Rules Committee determines the playing rules for Division I (both Bowl and Championship Subdivisions), II, and III games (the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) is a separate organization, but uses the NCAA rules).

January 30, 1892 saw the first football game played in the Deep South when the Georgia Bulldogs defeated Mercer 50-0 at Herty Field.

Old “Football Fightum” had been resurrected at Harvard in 1872, when Harvard resumed playing football. Mary’s, Santa Clara, and USC (in 1911).[87] However, due to the perception that West Coast football was inferior to the game played on the East Coast anyway, East Coast and Midwest teams shrugged off the loss of the teams and continued playing American football.[87] With no nationwide movement, the available pool of rugby teams to play remained small.[87] The schools scheduled games against local club teams and reached out to rugby union powers in Australia, New Zealand, and especially, due to its proximity, Canada. Outing. “The Birth of OSU Football”. During this streak, Michigan scored 2,831 points while allowing only 40.[35]

1904 Vanderbilt team in action.

The 1899 Sewanee Tigers are one of the all-time great teams of the early sport. The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh. Kicked tries count as one point. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 18

^ John S. Players who became famous for taking advantage of the easier passing game included Alabama end Don Hutson and TCU passer “Slingin” Sammy Baugh.[133]

In May 1900, Yost was hired as the football coach at Stanford University,[84] and, after traveling home to West Virginia, he arrived in Palo Alto, California, on August 21, 1900.[85] Yost led the 1900 Stanford team to a 7-2-1, outscoring opponents 154 to 20. May 8, 1900. President Theodore Roosevelt reportedly threatened to shut down the game if drastic changes were not made.[94] However, the threat by Roosevelt to eliminate football is disputed by sports historians. University of Virginia Football Vault. Heisman Trophy. ABC Sports began broadcasting a national Game of the Week in 1966, bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time.[141]

In 1891, the first Stanford football team was hastily organized and played a four-game season beginning in January 1892 with no official head coach. The first of these happened on November 11, 1876 in Philadelphia and was the first intercollegiate game in the state of Pennsylvania.

The first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. Rather than simply a regional team, Rockne’s “Fighting Irish” became famous for barnstorming and played any team at any location. p. 95.

^ Ray Dozier. Doc Blanchard (known as “Mr. Because the college officials could not agree upon a change in rules, it was decided over the course of several subsequent meetings that an external governing body should be responsible. Pomona College was invited to enter, but declined to do so. Eugene, Oregon: McCann Communications Corp. College Football Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ “Notre Dame Football :: UND.COM :: The Official Site of Notre Dame Athletics”. Pop Warner’s Pittsburgh Panthers were also undefeated, but declined a challenge by Heisman to a game. This allowed the four other BCS bowls to use their normal selection process to select the teams in their games while the top two teams in the BCS rankings would play in the new National Championship Game.

Canadian football, which parallels American football, is played by collegiate teams in Canada under the auspices of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. The best collegiate players will typically declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring. Consisting mostly of schools from Texas, the conference saw back-to-back national champions with Texas Christian University (TCU) in 1938 and Texas A&M in 1939.[128][129] The Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), a precursor to the Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12), had its own back-to-back champion in the University of Southern California which was awarded the title in 1931 and 1932.[128] The Southeastern Conference (SEC) formed in 1932 and consisted mostly of schools in the Deep South.[130] As in previous decades, the Big Ten continued to dominate in the 1930s and 1940s, with Minnesota winning 5 titles between 1934 and 1941, and Michigan (1933, 1947, and 1948) and Ohio State (1942) also winning titles.[128][131]

The 1893 Stanford American football team

As a result of this, Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by Rutgers, Princeton and Columbia at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City on October 20, 1873 to agree on a set of rules and regulations that would allow them to play a form of football that was essentially Association football; and continued to play under its own code. In 1927, his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped. Outland held an experimental game in Wichita, Kansas that reduced the number of scrimmage plays to earn a first down from four to three in an attempt to reduce injuries.[96] The Los Angeles Times reported an increase in punts and considered the game much safer than regular play but that the new rule was not “conducive to the sport”.[97] In 1906, President Roosevelt organized a meeting among thirteen school leaders at the White House to find solutions to make the sport safer for the athletes. Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team’s goal. ESPN.com. Washington and Lee also claims a 4 to 2 win over VMI in 1873.[38]

The beginnings of the contemporary Southeastern Conference and Atlantic Coast Conference start in 1894. Athletics were banned at the school in May 1892, but when the strict school president, Benjamin Arnold, died, President John Bloss reversed the ban.[82] Bloss’s son William started the first team, on which he served as both coach and quarterback.[83] The team’s first game was an easy 63-0 defeat over the home team, Albany College.

No sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory.

Coaching

Main article: Head coach § College football

National championships

College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS – Overview of systems for determining national champions at the highest level of college football from 1869 to present.

College Football Playoff – 4 team playoff system for determining national champions at the highest level of college football beginning in 2014.

Bowl Championship Series – The primary method of determining the national champion at the highest level of college football from 1998-2013; preceded by the Bowl Alliance (1995-1997) and the Bowl Coalition (1992-1994).

This audio file was created from a revision of the “College football” article dated 2006-05-29, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. National Collegiate Athletic Association. Under the current playoff structure, the top eight teams are all seeded, and receive a bye week in the first round. sporting event.[76]

Golf

Men

Women

The style of football playing has altered considerably; by the old rules, all men in front of the runner with the ball, were offside, consequently we could not send backs through and break the line ahead of the ball as is done at present. They remained largely “mob” style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. “College Football in Kansas”. In the Rugby rules of the time, a try only provided the attempt to kick a free goal from the field. Sports Reference.com. Three of the schools–Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton–formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting. It has its own arrangement for access to the New Year’s Six games should it meet certain standards.

Group of Five – The remaining five FBS conferences – American, C-USA, MAC, MW, and Sun Belt. This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ Edmonston Jr., George. Bradbury Robinson, playing for visionary coach Eddie Cochems at Saint Louis University, threw the first legal pass in a September 5, 1906, game against Carroll College at Waukesha. Football, the American intercollegiate game. The Rose Bowl included Roy Riegels’ wrong-way run. The two semifinal winners then advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship, whose host is determined by open bidding several years in advance.

Lacrosse

Men

Women

Harvard vs. 2007. NCAA.org. Harvard, however, preferred to play a rougher version of football called “the Boston Game” in which the kicking of a round ball was the most prominent feature though a player could run with the ball, pass it, or dribble it (known as “babying”). For the current season of Championship Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FCS football season.

1.6.2 Coaches of the era

1.6.2.1 Glenn “Pop” Warner

1.6.2.2 Knute Rockne

Violence, formation of NCAA

Unlike other college football divisions and most other sports–collegiate or professional–the Football Bowl Subdivision, formerly known as Division I-A college football, has historically not employed a playoff system to determine a champion. 2.

^ a b “A History of Washington and Lee Athletics”. The trophy was designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu and modeled after New York University player Ed Smith. A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton’s own set of rules (one notable difference was the awarding of a “free kick” to any player that caught the ball on the fly, which was a feature adopted from the Football Association’s rules; the fair catch kick rule has survived through to modern American game). The system still did not include the Big Ten, Pac-10, or the Rose Bowl, and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship.[145][147] However, one positive side effect is that if there were three teams at the end of the season vying for a national title, but one of them was a Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to the Rose Bowl, then there would be no difficulty in deciding which teams to place in the Bowl Alliance “national championship” bowl; if the Pac-10/Big Ten team won the Rose Bowl and finished with the same record as whichever team won the other bowl game, they could have a share of the national title. Following the season, Stanford captain John Whittemore wrote to Yale coach Walter Camp asking him to recommend a coach for Stanford. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ “College Football Games”. WorldCat.org. Stone. Wade’s Alabama again won a national championship and Rose Bowl in 1930.

Cross Country

Men

Women

and championships

The Big Game between Stanford and California is the oldest college football rivalry in the West. Princeton University students played a game called “ballown” as early as 1820. The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also holds a playoff.

On April 9, 1880 at Stoll Field, Transylvania University (then called Kentucky University) beat Centre College by the score of 13¾-0 in what is often considered the first recorded game played in the South.[40] The first game of “scientific football” in the South was the first instance of the Victory Bell rivalry between North Carolina and Duke (then known as Trinity College) held on Thanksgiving Day, 1888, at the North Carolina State Fairgrounds in Raleigh, North Carolina.[41]

University of Wisconsin football team, 1903

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Minnesota on September 30, 1882 when Hamline was convinced to play Minnesota. Retrieved January 14, 2013.

^ Alan Gould (January 24, 1931). Oklahoma, under coach Bud Wilkinson, won three national titles (1950, 1955, 1956) and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record 47-game winning streak. (Only two stadiums owned by U.S. “Why California Likes Rugby”. Oregon Ducks Football: 100 Years of Glory. Notre Dame remains a football independent, but is counted among the Power Five because of its full but non-football ACC membership, including a football scheduling alliance with that conference. The series included the four most prominent bowl games (Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl), while the National Championship game rotated each year between one of these venues. Baylor Athletics (Baylor University). Stanford: Home of Champions. of C. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. A violation will be a 5-yard penalty.

In 1998, a new system was put into place called the Bowl Championship Series. “Yale’s Walter Camp and 1870s Rugby.” The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. 2007. The annual Army-Navy game was suspended from 1894 to 1898 for similar reasons.[92] One of the major problems was the popularity of mass-formations like the flying wedge, in which a large number of offensive players charged as a unit against a similarly arranged defense. August 2008. Weyand (1962). Rutgers University. colleges or universities – Papa John’s Cardinal Stadium at the University of Louisville and FAU Stadium at Florida Atlantic University – consist entirely of chairback seating.)

As a result of the 1905-1906 reforms, mass formation plays became illegal and forward passes legal. First, Vanderbilt; second, Sewanee, a might good second;” and that Aubrey Lanier “came near winning the Vanderbilt game by his brilliant dashes after receiving punts.”[113]Bob Blake threw the final pass to center Stein Stone, catching it near the goal amongst defenders. Retrieved April 12, 2011.

^ “Timeline of Yale Football”. “Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics”, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988

^ Infamous 1874 McGill-Harvard game turns 132 at McGill Athletics, published by McGill University (no further authorship information available). Tennessee Historical Society. With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s. “Michigan-Chicago 1905: The First Greatest Game of the Century” (PDF). As a result, the official Division I National Champion is the winner of the Football Championship Subdivision, as it is the highest level of football with an NCAA-administered championship tournament.

Wrestling

Championship

After the first game against Harvard, Tufts took its squad to Bates College in Lewiston, Maine for the first football game played in Maine.[23] This occurred on November 6, 1875.

Division III

The Virginia Cavaliers (orange and blue home uniforms) play against the Penn State Nittany Lions (all-white away uniforms) in 2012 in Scott Stadium.

The longtime resistance to a playoff system at the FBS level finally ended with the creation of the College Football Playoff (CFP) beginning with the 2014 season. A Harvard tradition known as “Bloody Monday” began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. Prescott Evening Courier.

^ “Ball Under The Jersey”

Baseball Handicapping Formula – How To Become Great at Baseball Handicapping

September 10, 2016 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in betting baseball

This formula must be battle tested. You just start analyzing ball games and select your winners. That is the easy part just about all handicappers claim to be the best.. For effective baseball handicapping you need to follow a formula. A good handicapper will take all this information and plug into their handicapping formula.

Now you are probably reading this article because you want to know who is best. Anyone can create a formula and start using it, but it has to be tested. Remember to distinguish the difference between just lucky and picking the right side. Baseball season is very long and there are many ups and downs for every team. My feelings on this are not one individual can be giving that title. Follow the game, use a proven baseball betting formula, there are many available. Don’t confuse being lucky for being good.

Now a proven winning formula is mandatory. Part of being a good handicapper is promoting yourself as one. There is no government rating nor is there any real tracking system. Then there are the side variable such as weather conditions, disputes among the players sand mental state of the players. A handicapper that just picks games without close examination is one that I would avoid. They must be up to date with all trades, injuries, trends and current statistics. It is better to be lucky than be good, right. The only way to fully grade a handicappers picks is over the entire season.

The fact is anyone can claim to be good at baseball handicapping. There is no license or certification required. You might have a nice run for a week, start thinking you have the best system in the world then lose the next 10 games. Let’s make it simple and say that a baseball handicapper is a person that analyzes two baseball teams and attempt to picks the winner.

The best baseball handicappers in one who thoroughly follows the game, uses a proven system along with all those miscellaneous variables to determine their selections. Just what is a baseball handicapper? According to Wikipedia: Baseball Handicapping is the practice of assigning advantage through scoring compensation or other advantage given to different contestants to equalize the chances of winning. The only way to test a formula is to use through an entire baseball season. Baseball handicapping is not all based on skill. Luck has a lot to do with it. I am a true believe that anyone can be the best baseball handicapper if they so desire. Be consistent with your bets and use proper money management and you will the best baseball handicapper.

I would define the best baseball handicapper a one who is truly knowledgeable on the sports. Many get lucky but luck only happens occasional

Florida Youth Football Coaches Busted for Gambling on Games

September 9, 2016 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in football betting

– that served as fronts for the illegal betting. Players in the league ranged in age from 5 to 15.

According to ABC affiliate WPLG-TV, six of the nine men charged have previous felony arrests for drugs, assault, and theft.

“They brought us footage and asked us about it,” she said. The county sheriff said the arrests came after an 18-month investigation.

Moschella said that Brandon Bivins, the coach and president of the Fort Lauderdale Hurricanes, set up the barber shop. and charged with felony bookmaking for illegally gambling on youth football games, as well as professional and collegiate sports. Nine men have been arrested in Broward County, Fla. Their bonds range from $15,000 to $50,000.

Officers executed search warrants at the two businesses Monday. “We’re really hoping to get participation from parents and other people at football games to get more information.” . and Red Carpet Kutz Barbershop in Lauderhill, Fla. “Until that time, we didn’t know it was happening.”

“For the youth league Super Bowl, the pot was more the $100,000,” said Dani Moschella, spokeswoman for the Broward Sheriff’s Office.

Moschella said that the investigation began after the Broward Sheriff’s Office received a tip from ESPN back in May 2011, following a series the network did on gambling on youth football in South Florida.

Moschella said the surveillance footage shot by ESPN for the program “Outside the Lines” showed people openly exchanging money in the stands based on what was happening in the games. Only some of the men arrested were charged with keeping a gambling house, according to a statement from the Broward Sheriff’s Office.

“If you walked through the back door [of Red Carpet Kutz], it was a bustling, very active gambling house with three windows,” said Moschella. While gamblers would mostly place bets on professional and collegiate games at these locations, detectives discovered bets were placed on youth football games as well.

The nine men arrested are currently in custody in Broward County Jail. According to his arrest affidavit, Bivins was also the president of Showtime Sports, the other business used as a front for gambling.

“These kids are so precious, and to have people with criminal histories like these hanging around them, acting as mentors and coaches is disturbing,” Moschella said.

Gambling operations were run out of two local businesses — Showtime Sports in Lauderdale Lakes, Fla. “It looked like a barber shop but they didn’t cut hair there.”

Code-named Operation Dirty Play, the investigation, authorities said, revealed that South Florida Youth Football League coaches, team affiliates, and even one team president set bets before games. But the ongoing investigation revealed that the scheme was more intricate.

While this case involved one league, there are five youth leagues in Broward County alone.

“We had no idea that it was going to be the people closest to the kids,” said Moschella.

“The investigation is ongoing and this is just the starting point,” Moschella said

College football

September 9, 2016 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in college football

Suits of flannel were ultimately procured and paid for assessments on the members of the association and generous contributions from members of the faculty.

1.7 From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

1.8 Modern college football (since 1958)

1.8.1 Growth of bowl games

1.8.2 Bowl Championship Series

1.8.3 College Football Playoff

Gymnastics

Men

Women

Men-DII

Women-DII

1917 saw the rise of another Southern team in Centre of Danville, Kentucky. April 27, 1924.

^ Dan McGugin (1907). The University of Denver and the University of Utah joined the RMAC in 1910. The team went 12-0, outscoring opponents 322 to 10. This “twenty” never played Columbia, but did play twice against Princeton.[24] Princeton won both games 6 to 0. dartmo.com. Princeton Alumni Weekly. The last team from the non-AQ ranks to reach a BCS bowl game in the BCS era was Northern Illinois in 2012, which played in (and lost) the 2013 Orange Bowl.

This audio file was created from a revision of the “College football” article dated 2006-05-29, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Possessions alternate with each overtime, until one team leads the other at the end of the overtime. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ a b MacCambridge (1999), pp 148

^ Vancil (2000), pp 30

^ Vancil (2000), pp 28-30

^ “A Brief History of the Heisman Trophy”. Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship. open access publication - free to read

^ Patrick Dorsey (September 23, 2011). The NFL, which previously treated the ball as dead during a conversion attempt–meaning that the attempt ended when the defending team gained possession of the football–adopted the college rule in 2015.

The two-minute warning is not used in college football, except in rare cases where the scoreboard clock has malfunctioned and is not being used.

There is an option to use instant replay review of officiating decisions. Losses to an FBS team count against their playoff eligibility, while wins against a Division II opponent do not count towards playoff consideration. Football, the American intercollegiate game. Frank Suffel and Henry H. The term “bowl” originates from the shape of the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California, which was built in 1923 and resembled the Yale Bowl, built in 1915. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the ‘Pioneer Period’; the years 1876-93 he called the ‘Period of the American Intercollegiate Football Association’; and the years 1894-1933 he dubbed the ‘Period of Rules Committees and Conferences’.[5]

Lacrosse

Men

Women

Football

Championship

Organization

In 1935, New York City’s Downtown Athletic Club awarded the first Heisman Trophy to University of Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger, who was also the first ever NFL Draft pick in 1936. p. 12.

^ a b Ray Soldan (September 11, 1994). Retrieved June 11, 2011.

^ “NCAA Division I Football Championship”. Outside”) both won the Heisman Trophy, in 1945 and 1946 respectively. This allowed the four other BCS bowls to use their normal selection process to select the teams in their games while the top two teams in the BCS rankings would play in the new National Championship Game.

The BCS ended after the 2013 season and, since the 2014 season, the FBS national champion has been determined by a four-team tournament known as the College Football Playoff (CFP). 2007. Playing its first game on November 14 of that year against the Alliance Athletic Club, in which USC gained a 16-0 victory. Retrieved March 7, 2015.

^ “The Football Game That Changed the South”. Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team’s own particular code. 1895. May 8, 1900. of C. Selection for the playoffs is determined by a selection committee, although usually a team must have a 7-4 record to even be considered. At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on the Football Association’s rules than the rules of the recently founded Rugby Football Union, was drawn up for intercollegiate football games.[3]

On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in 1874. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ a b c “NFL History3039-1910″. Dartmouth played its own version called “Old division football”, the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s. As a result of this meeting, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was formed in 1906. The number grew to eleven in 1976. He led his team to an impressive 105-12-5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in 1931. A violation will be a 5-yard penalty.

1904 saw big coaching hires in the south: Mike Donahue at Auburn, John Heisman at Georgia Tech, and Dan McGugin at Vanderbilt were all hired that year. Beats Throop By a Score of 22 to 12 at Pasadena”. In 1966, rugby league introduced a four-tackle rule (changed in 1972 to a six-tackle rule) based on Camp’s early down-and-distance rules.

Softball

Championship/WCWS

Beach volleyball

Women

Walter Camp: Father of American football

Notable intersectional games

Rutgers was first to extend the reach of the game. National Collegiate Athletic Association. There was no limit to the number of players, but there were typically ten to fifteen per side. The IAAUS was the original rule making body of college football, but would go on to sponsor championships in other sports. Nixon, Silver & Gold, December 16, 1898[90]

The establishment of the CFP followed a tumultuous period of conference realignment in Division I. The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. This game’s violence caused such an outcry that no games at all were played in 1871. p. 15.

^ “Stanford Defeats Stagg’s Eleven”. Atlanta Constitution. Though it was underutilized for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.[100] Another rule change banned “mass momentum” plays (many of which, like the infamous “flying wedge”, were sometimes literally deadly).

1 History

1.1 Rugby Football in England and Canada

1.2 American college football

1.2.1 Early games

1.2.2 Harvard-McGill (1874)

1.2.3 Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

1.2.4 Walter Camp: Father of American football

In 1907 at Champaign, Illinois Chicago and Illinois played in the first game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band.[106] Chicago won 42-6. Stanford: Home of Champions. What is absolutely certain is that on October 9, 1905, Roosevelt held a meeting of football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) was founded on December 21, 1894, by Dr. Teams can also go for “the two-point conversion” which is when a team will line up at the three-yard line and try to score. November 27, 1941.

^ “Homecoming 2015″. Lawrence Daily Journal. For its first thirty years, the RMAC was considered a major conference equivalent to today’s Division I, before 7 larger members left and formed the Mountain States Conference (also called the Skyline Conference).

The 1950s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ “1800s”. Retrieved September 11, 2012.

^ John Majors. D. “Old Division Football, The Indigenous Mob Soccer Of Dartmouth College (pdf)” (PDF). Starting with the third overtime, a one-point PAT field goal after a touchdown is no longer allowed, forcing teams to attempt a two-point conversion after a touchdown. 201-209.

^ “Intercollegiate Football: The U.S.C. Atlanta Constitution. The NCAA Football Rules Committee determines the playing rules for Division I (both Bowl and Championship Subdivisions), II, and III games (the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) is a separate organization, but uses the NCAA rules).

The situation came to a head in 1905 when there were 19 fatalities nationwide. Harvard University Sports Information Office. Some coaches and officials questioned this rule change as it could lead to more injuries to the players as there will likely be more kickoff returns.[148] The rationale for the rule change was to help reduce dead time in the game.[149] The NFL returned its kickoff location to the 35-yard line effective in 2011; college football did not do so until 2012.

Several changes were made to college rules in 2011, all of which differ from NFL practice:[150]If a player is penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct for actions that occurred during a play ending in a touchdown by that team, but before the goal line was crossed, the touchdown will be nullified. ISBN 978-0-7948-2647-5.

^ “Wake Forest: A Look Back”.

^ “Furman University – 2014 FB Record Book”. College Football Historical Society. Retrieved October 11, 2009.

“College Football Rules Changes” (PDF). Although before the mid-1920s most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest, the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success. College Football Data Warehouse. On November 13, 1875, Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won 4-0. First, Vanderbilt; second, Sewanee, a might good second;” and that Aubrey Lanier “came near winning the Vanderbilt game by his brilliant dashes after receiving punts.”[113]Bob Blake threw the final pass to center Stein Stone, catching it near the goal amongst defenders. Vincent’s College to a 40-0 victory.[61] In 1893, USC joined the Intercollegiate Football Association of Southern California (the forerunner of the SCIAC), which was composed of USC, Occidental College, Throop Polytechnic Institute (Cal Tech), and Chaffey College. The motion was rejected at that time but passed in 1880. Wallace William Wade’s 1925 Alabama team won the 1926 Rose Bowl after receiving its first national title and William Alexander’s 1928 Georgia Tech team defeated California in the 1929 Rose Bowl. The notorious V was then in vogue, which gave a heavy team too much advantage. Harvard, however, preferred to play a rougher version of football called “the Boston Game” in which the kicking of a round ball was the most prominent feature though a player could run with the ball, pass it, or dribble it (known as “babying”). Rather than simply a regional team, Rockne’s “Fighting Irish” became famous for barnstorming and played any team at any location. Baylor Athletics (Baylor University). 2007. NCAA.org. Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to 20. 2007. Spectators from Princeton also carried the game back home, where it quickly became the most popular version of football.[3]

1906 St. Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander, gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing, LLC. For the current season of Championship Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FCS football season.

1895 football game between Auburn and Georgia.

^ Evans, Harold (August 1940). Retrieved 2011-10-06.

^ Steven Salzberg, “Football is corrupting America’s universities: it needs to go”, Forbes, November 26, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2011/11/26/football-is-corrupting-americas-universities-it-needs-to-go/

^ Jay Schalin, “Time for universities to punt football”, Washington Times, September 1, 2011, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/sep/1/time-for-universities-to-punt-football/?page=all

^ Laura Pappano, “How Big-Time Sports Ate College Life”, New York Times, January 20, 2012.

^ Jonah Newman, “Coaches, Not Presidents, Top Public-College Pay List”, Chronicle of Higher Education, May 16, 2014, http://chronicle.com/blogs/data/2014/05/16/coaches-not-presidents-top-public-college-pay-list/

^ One reference among many: Walt Bogdanich, “A Star Player Accused, and a Flawed Rape Investigation”, New York Times, April 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/16/sports/errors-in-inquiry-on-rape-allegations-against-fsu-jameis-winston.html

^ Gregg Doyel, “Time to pay college football players — changing times, money say so”, CBS Sports, September 25, 2013, http://www.cbssports.com/general/writer/gregg-doyel/23838595/its-time-pay-college-football-players—-changing-times-money-say-so

^ Rod Gilmore, “College football players deserve pay for play”, ESPN College Football, January 17, 2007, http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/columns/story?id=2733624

^ Taylor Branch, “The Shame of College Sports”, The Atlantic, October, 2011, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/10/the-shame-of-college-sports/308643/

^ Ben Strauss and Marc Tracy, “N.C.A.A. being afflicted with a super-abundance of penned up energy, or perhaps having recently drifted from under the parental wing and delighting in their newly found freedom, decided among other wild schemes, to form an athletic association. The University of Alabama. On October 12, 1929, Yale lost to Georgia in Sanford Stadium in its first trip to the south. November 27, 2011. The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death.[93] Georgia fullback Richard Von Albade Gammon notably died on the field from concussions received against Virginia in 1897, causing Georgia, Georgia Tech, and Mercer to suspend their football programs.

At the Division I FBS level, teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games during the season (teams that play 13 games in a season, which is allowed for Hawaii and any of its home opponents, must win 7 games). Its primary restriction is that all players must weigh less than the average college student (that threshold is set, as of 2015, at 172 pounds/78 kg).

Camp’s new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. Kirwan, chancellor of the University of Maryland System and co-director of the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, “We’ve reached a point where big-time intercollegiate athletics is undermining the integrity of our institutions, diverting presidents and institutions from their main purpose.”[156] Football coaches often make more than the presidents of their universities which employ them.[157] Athletes are alleged to receive preferential treatment both in academics and when they run afoul of the law.[158] Although in theory football is an extra-curricular activity engaged in as a sideline by students, it generates a substantial profit, from which the athletes receive no direct benefit. Handbook of Southern Intercollegiate Track and Field Athletics. It was the first game in the south decided by a field goal.[49] Heisman later used the trick against Pop Warner’s Georgia team. Athletics were banned at the school in May 1892, but when the strict school president, Benjamin Arnold, died, President John Bloss reversed the ban.[82] Bloss’s son William started the first team, on which he served as both coach and quarterback.[83] The team’s first game was an easy 63-0 defeat over the home team, Albany College.

Football

FBS

FCS

Soccer

Men

Women

Division I sports

January 30, 1892 saw the first football game played in the Deep South when the Georgia Bulldogs defeated Mercer 50-0 at Herty Field.

1.6.2 Coaches of the era

1.6.2.1 Glenn “Pop” Warner

1.6.2.2 Knute Rockne

Tom Davies runs against undefeated and unscored upon Georgia Tech in the 1918 game at Forbes Field.

Old “Football Fightum” had been resurrected at Harvard in 1872, when Harvard resumed playing football. Students and alumni began to clamor for a return to American football to allow wider intercollegiate competition.[87] The pressure at rival California was stronger (especially as the school had not been as successful in the Big Game as they had hoped), and in 1915 California returned to American football. College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South.[127]

Contents

Rifle

Championship

Violence, formation of NCAA

The University of Colorado began playing American football in 1890. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Johnson, Greg (2008-08-28). p. 186. The New York Times. In 1921 Bo McMillin-led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history. Oregon Ducks Football: 100 Years of Glory. (1916-10-15). “College Football”. It was agreed that the No.1 and No.2 ranked teams gave up their prior bowl tie-ins and were guaranteed to meet in the national championship game, which rotated between the three participating bowls. Grantland Rice cited this event as the greatest thrill he ever witnessed in his years of watching sports.[112] Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin in Spalding’s Football Guide’s summation of the season in the SIAA wrote “The standing. The rules that they agreed upon were essentially those of rugby union at the time with the exception that points be awarded for scoring a try, not just the conversion afterwards (extra point). By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport later known as Rugby football. “John Franklin Crowell, Methodism, and the Football Controversy at Trinity College, 1887-1894″ (PDF). “Teddy Roosevelt’s Role in the 1905 Football Controversy”. Later in 1870, Princeton and Rutgers played again with Princeton defeating Rutgers 6-0. ESPN.com. Retrieved 2007-03-21. p. 232.

^ David M. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance, and the reverse play.[121] The youth football league, Pop Warner Little Scholars, was named in his honor.

Golf

Men

Women

Ice hockey

Men

Women

and championships

Colorado’s First football team in 1890.

Harvard-McGill (1874)

Main article: 1874 Harvard vs. “1958 Colts remember the ‘Greatest Game’”. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16

^ Men’s Intercollegiate Athletic Department of the University of Minnesota (1981). p. 14.

^ Southern Inter-Collegiate Athletic Association (PDF). Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ a b “The History of Football”. Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team’s goal. “Tiny Maxwell and the Crisis of 1905: The Making of a Gridiron Myth” (PDF). It is recalled memorably with the phrase “… and on the seventh day they rested.”[51][52]Grantland Rice called them “the most durable football team I ever saw.”[53]

Map of NCAA Division III

NCAA

The beginnings of the contemporary Southeastern Conference and Atlantic Coast Conference start in 1894. Thus, only Division I wins (whether FBS, FCS, or FCS non-scholarship) are considered for playoff selection. For the 2009 season, there were 34 bowl games, so 68 of the 120 Division I FBS teams were invited to play at a bowl. Accessed March 11, 2015

^ Will Perry (1974). The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called “Football Fightum”, for whom they conducted funeral rites. The U of C should henceforth lead the state and possibly the west in athletic sports.

This system has been challenged often, beginning with an NCAA committee proposal in 1979 to have a four-team playoff following the bowl games.[153] However, little headway was made in instituting a playoff tournament until 2014, given the entrenched vested economic interests in the various bowls. They are then invited to a bowl game based on their conference ranking and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game. Although the NCAA publishes lists of claimed FBS-level national champions in its official publications, it has never recognized an official FBS national championship; this policy continues even after the establishment of the College Football Playoff (which is not directly run by the NCAA) in 2014. (2007). Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 39

^ Vancil (2000), pp 41-45

^ MacCambridge (1999) pp 172

^ MacCambridge (1999), pp 171

^ Bennett (1976) pp 56

^ Barnidge, Tom (2000). Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.[132]

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

2 Official rules and notable rule distinctions

3 Organization

4 Coaching

5 National championships

6 Team maps

7 Playoff games

8 Bowl games

8.1 Division I FBS National Championship Games

Mid West

In 1906 Vanderbilt defeated Carlisle 4 to 0, the result of a Bob Blake field goal.[115][116] In 1907 Vanderbilt fought Navy to a 6 to 6 tie. Stetson beat Florida Agricultural College at Lake City, one of the four forerunners of the University of Florida, 6-0, in a game played as part of the Jacksonville Fair.[55]

On September 27, 1902, Georgetown beat Navy 4 to 0. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ Smith, R.A. The Oklahoma Football Encyclopedia: 2nd Edition. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Sports Information Office. “Sport Slants”. ABC Sports began broadcasting a national Game of the Week in 1966, bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time.[141]

Basketball

Men

Women

American football historian Parke H. The following season saw Vanderbilt execute a double pass play to set up the touchdown that beat Sewanee in a meeting of unbeatens for the SIAA championship. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “History of the Football Helmet” from Past Time Sports. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860.[3]

Coaches of the era

Glenn “Pop” Warner

Wrestling

Championship

November 30, 1905, saw Chicago defeat Michigan 2 to 0. Church took over the coaching position in the fall for the rest of the season. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ Edmonston Jr., George. December 27, 1892. “A Look Back at High School Football in 1900s Decade”.

^ Triumph Books. Rockne returned to coach the team in 1918, and devised the powerful Notre Dame Box offense, based on Warner’s single wing. Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. “N.C.A.A. McGill

The first bowl game was the 1902 Rose Bowl, played between Michigan and Stanford; Michigan won 49-0. It appears here in its original form:

Helping Georgia Tech’s claim to a title in 1917, the Auburn Tigers held undefeated, Chic Harley-led Big Ten champion Ohio State to a scoreless tie the week before Georgia Tech beat the Tigers 68 to 7. This happened in the final year of the Bowl Alliance, with Michigan winning the 1998 Rose Bowl and Nebraska winning the 1998 Orange Bowl. College Football Data Warehouse. The Coalition lasted for three years; however, several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases. At the 1882 rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. “Yale Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. This arrangement is contractually locked in until the 2026 season.

v

t

e

Map of NJCAA

Gymnastics

Men

Women

The first USC football squad (1888). The Chicago Daily Tribune called it “the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies.”[31] Other Midwestern schools soon followed suit, including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Minnesota. When a game goes to overtime, each team is given one possession from its opponent’s twenty-five yard line with no game clock, despite the one timeout per period and use of play clock. Mcgill.ca. Consequently, Stanford is USC’s oldest existing rival.[86] The Big Game between Stanford and Cal on November 11, 1905 was the first played at Stanford Field, with Stanford winning 12-5.[63]

East

Institutions

Athletic directors

Baseball

Championship

CWS

Rise of the South

College Football Playoff

Main article: College Football Playoff

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

After the Bowl Championship Series, additional all-star bowl games round out the post-season schedule through the beginning of February.

November 1890 was an active time in the sport. Leggett, based on the Football Association’s first set of rules, which were an early attempt by the former pupils of England’s public schools, to unify the rules of their public schools games and create a universal and standardized set of rules for the game of football and bore little resemblance to the American game which would be developed in the following decades. 2007-02-14. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Retrieved February 9, 2015.

^ Melvin I. This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams.

^ “Ten Yard Rule a Failure” New York Times, December 26, 1905

^ “New Football Rules Tested” Los Angeles Times, December 26, 1905

^ a b “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries”. Division I FBS schools use replay in virtually all games; replay is rarely used in lower division games. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. In the NFL, the same foul would result in a penalty on the conversion attempt or ensuing kickoff, at the option of the non-penalized team.

If a team is penalized in the final minute of a half and the penalty causes the clock to stop, the opposing team now has the right to have 10 seconds run off the clock in addition to the yardage penalty. Current Events, 00113492, 11/14/2011, Vol. He also lacked the authority to abolish football and was, in fact, actually a fan of the sport and wanted to preserve it. 2007. On the coaching staff of those 1944-1946 Army teams was future Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Vince Lombardi.[131][135]

On April 9, 1880 at Stoll Field, Transylvania University (then called Kentucky University) beat Centre College by the score of 13¾-0 in what is often considered the first recorded game played in the South.[40] The first game of “scientific football” in the South was the first instance of the Victory Bell rivalry between North Carolina and Duke (then known as Trinity College) held on Thanksgiving Day, 1888, at the North Carolina State Fairgrounds in Raleigh, North Carolina.[41]

Homosexuality in American football

List of defunct college football teams

List of defunct college football conferences

List of historically significant college football games

List of sports attendance figures

Sports injury

9 Controversy

10 College football outside the United States

11 Awards

12 See also

13 References

14 Further notes

15 External links

15.1 Statistics

15.2 Rules

15.3 Maps

Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

Football

Championship

Further notes

“The Invention Of Football”. The 1917 team was the first national champion from the South, led by a powerful backfield. Princeton University students played a game called “ballown” as early as 1820. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school. Known as the “Iron Men”, with just 13 men they had a six-day road trip with five shutout wins over Texas A&M; Texas; Tulane; LSU; and Ole Miss. The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh. Between 1890 and 1905, 330 college athletes died as a direct result of injuries sustained on the football field. In 1918, the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field–previously strict rules were in place allowing passes to only certain areas of the field.[103] Scoring rules also changed during this time: field goals were lowered to three points in 1909[7] and touchdowns raised to six points in 1912.[104]

Fencing

Championships

Golf

Men

Women

Penn’s Athletic Association was looking to pick “a twenty” to play a game of football against Columbia. WorldCat.org. p. 70.

^ Gary Migdol. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Woody Hayes led Ohio State to two national titles, in 1954 and 1957, and dominated the Big Ten conference, winning three Big Ten titles–more than any other school. Watterson, “Inventing Modern Football”, American Heritage magazine, June 1988

^ Vancil (2000), pp 17

^ Vancil (2000) pp 22

^ “NFL History 1911-1920″. Nine out of ten Heisman Trophy winners in the 1950s were runners. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ “College Football Games”. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in 1889, the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.[16]

Rowing

Women

Heisman shift

The first nighttime football game was played in Mansfield, Pennsylvania on September 28, 1892 between Mansfield State Normal and Wyoming Seminary and ended at halftime in a 0-0 tie.[29] The Army-Navy game of 1893 saw the first documented use of a football helmet by a player in a game. Inside”) and Glenn Davis (known as “Mr. Several times in 1883, Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns, two points for safeties, and five for field goals. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ a b c “BCS Chronology”. PMID 4903389.

^ Watterson, John (2001). Nixon was elected president and Holden secretary of the association.

Playoff games

The University of Southern California first fielded an American football team in 1888. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ DeLassus, David. March 29, 1916 – via Google books. 40: 717-724. p. 52. Tales from the Oregon Ducks Sideline. Tennessee Historical Society. Doc Blanchard (known as “Mr. The first of these happened on November 11, 1876 in Philadelphia and was the first intercollegiate game in the state of Pennsylvania.

The longtime resistance to a playoff system at the FBS level finally ended with the creation of the College Football Playoff (CFP) beginning with the 2014 season. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “FBS College Football History”. pp. A3.

^ Alex Lynn (November 25, 1906). August 17, 1999.

^ Alexander M. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. Sports Reference.com. It was agreed that two games would be played on Harvard’s Jarvis baseball field in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 14 and 15, 1874: one to be played under Harvard rules, another under the stricter rugby regulations of McGill. Joseph M. In 1910 Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie.[116]

games 1930-2010[144]

Year

# of games

1930

1

1940

5

1950

8

1960

8

1970

8

1980

15

1990

19

2000

25

2010

35

2014

College football playoff consist of 2 bowls and a champ game

The rules committee considered widening the playing field to “open up” the game, but Harvard Stadium (the first large permanent football stadium) had recently been built at great expense; it would be rendered useless by a wider field. Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. The man with the ball could be tackled, although hitting, tripping, “hacking” (shin-kicking) and other unnecessary roughness was prohibited. Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development.[146]

In 1864, at Trinity College, also a college of the University of Toronto, F. It was during Rockne’s tenure that the annual Notre Dame-University of Southern California rivalry began. In the thirty years from 1950 to 1980, seven bowl games were added to the schedule. Without the Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to a bowl game, it would be difficult to decide which two teams should play for the national title.

Division II

Trampoline

Championship

Rugby Football in England and Canada

It is thought that the first forward pass in football occurred on October 26, 1895 in a game between Georgia and North Carolina when, out of desperation, the ball was thrown by the North Carolina back Joel Whitaker instead of punted and George Stephens caught the ball.[48] On November 9, 1895 John Heisman executed a hidden ball trick utilizing quarterback Reynolds Tichenor to get Auburn’s only touchdown in a 6 to 9 loss to Vanderbilt. This college rule was added in 1988. Mary’s, Santa Clara, and USC (in 1911).[87] However, due to the perception that West Coast football was inferior to the game played on the East Coast anyway, East Coast and Midwest teams shrugged off the loss of the teams and continued playing American football.[87] With no nationwide movement, the available pool of rugby teams to play remained small.[87] The schools scheduled games against local club teams and reached out to rugby union powers in Australia, New Zealand, and especially, due to its proximity, Canada. CUBuffs.com reprint of Silver & Gold article. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp’s original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. In the 1950s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following. Outing. Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35-13 and helped establish the school as a national power. Each school played its own variety of football. Another rule, unique to McGill, was to count tries (the act of grounding the football past the opposing team’s goal line; it is important to note that there was no end zone during this time), as well as goals, in the scoring. 1991 Pitt Football: University of Pittsburgh Football Media Guide. Division III institutions also field teams, but do not offer any scholarships.

Lacrosse

Men

Women

Cross Country

Men

Women

College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. “Princeton Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. The game between West Virginia and Pittsburgh on October 8, 1921, saw the first live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ a b c d e f g “No Christian End!” (PDF). William Dudley, a chemistry professor at Vanderbilt.[45] The original members were Alabama, Auburn, Georgia, Georgia Tech, North Carolina, Sewanee, and Vanderbilt. Passing numbers dropped from an average of 18.9 attempts in 1951 to 13.6 attempts in 1955, while teams averaged just shy of 50 running plays per game. Bill Traughber. Lincoln Evening Journal. Oklahoma, under coach Bud Wilkinson, won three national titles (1950, 1955, 1956) and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record 47-game winning streak. Louis Post-Dispatch photograph of Brad Robinson, who threw the first legal forward pass and was the sport’s first triple threat

Sewanee’s 1899 “Iron Men.”

The style of football playing has altered considerably; by the old rules, all men in front of the runner with the ball, were offside, consequently we could not send backs through and break the line ahead of the ball as is done at present. p. 53.

^ Becky Riddle, “Stoll Field”, ExploreKYHistory, accessed February 4, 2015, http://explorekyhistory.ky.gov/items/show/153.

^ Jim L. The CFP is a Plus-One system, a concept that became popular as a BCS alternative following controversies in 2003 and 2004. (Only two stadiums owned by U.S. “Changing seasons: Y. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. New York Times. Big Ten Conference – Official Athletic Site – Traditions. As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. Saperecom. Washington and Lee also claims a 4 to 2 win over VMI in 1873.[38]

NCAA Division II Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the third highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NCAA Division III Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the fourth highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NAIA National Football Championship -playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.

NJCAA National Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Junior College Athletic Association.

CSFL Championship – Champions of the Collegiate Sprint Football League, a weight restricted football sport.

Team maps

Star players that emerged in the early 20th century include Jim Thorpe, Red Grange, and Bronko Nagurski; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league. However, after a few years, the school began to feel the isolation of its newly adopted sport, which was not spreading as many had hoped. Rutgers University. In 1881, the field was reduced in size to its modern dimensions of 120 by 531/3 yards (109.7 by 48.8 meters). Sportswriter Grantland Rice helped popularize the sport with his poetic descriptions of games and colorful nicknames for the game’s biggest players, including Notre Dame’s “Four Horsemen” backfield and Fordham University’s linemen, known as the “Seven Blocks of Granite”.[105]

The 1930s saw growth in the passing game. Jarvis Field was at the time a patch of land at the northern point of the Harvard campus, bordered by Everett and Jarvis Streets to the north and south, and Oxford Street and Massachusetts Avenue to the east and west. “Buff Milestones” (PDF). The game ended in an 11-11 tie causing many teams to claim the title. 16: 583. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ Meacham, Scott (2006). Rutgers won by a score of six to four. The new NCAA rule applies to penalties on both sides of the ball.

Players lined up outside the tackle box–more specifically, those lined up more than 7 yards from the center–will now be allowed to block below the waist only if they are blocking straight ahead or toward the nearest sideline.

On placekicks, no offensive lineman can now be engaged by more than two defensive players. In 2009, Boise State played TCU in the Fiesta Bowl, the first time two schools from non-BCS conferences played each other in a BCS bowl game. From 1901 to 1905, Michigan had a 56-game undefeated streak that included a 1902 trip to play in the first college football bowl game, which later became the Rose Bowl Game. University of Virginia Football Vault. Harts had left to prospect for gold in the Arctic.[59][60] Organized football was first played in the territory on November 29, 1894 between the Oklahoma City Terrors and Oklahoma City High School. (1969). Emory Bellard, an assistant coach under Darrell Royal at the University of Texas, developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone. “Yale’s Walter Camp and 1870s Rugby.” The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. College Football Encyclopedia. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point, bringing Army back-to-back national titles in 1944 and 1945 under coach Red Blaik. Three of the schools–Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton–formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting. Davis. If the kick was missed, the try did not score any points itself.

Growth of bowl games

See also: Bowl game

Growth of bowl

Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League (NFL), college football remained extremely popular throughout the Artic North of Spain[1] Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs – the highest level – playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000. The annual Big Game between Stanford and California continued as rugby, with the winner invited by the British Columbia Rugby Union to a tournament in Vancouver over the Christmas holidays, with the winner of that tournament receiving the Cooper Keith Trophy.[87][88][89]

Pacific Coast

Heisman Trophy

Maxwell Award

Walter Camp Award

Outland Trophy

Associated Press Player of the Year

Johnny Rodgers Award

Fred Biletnikoff Award

Lou Groza Award

Lombardi Award

As a result of the 1905-1906 reforms, mass formation plays became illegal and forward passes legal. Baker beat Kansas 22-9.[19] On the 27th, Vanderbilt played Nashville (Peabody) at Athletic Park and won 40-0. 2006-2007 Texas Almanac. The first western team to travel east was the 1881 Michigan team, which played at Harvard, Yale and Princeton.[32][33] The nation’s first college football league, the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives (also known as the Western Conference), a precursor to the Big Ten Conference, was founded in 1895.[34]

Unlike other college football divisions and most other sports–collegiate or professional–the Football Bowl Subdivision, formerly known as Division I-A college football, has historically not employed a playoff system to determine a champion. If they are successful, they receive two points, if they are not, then they receive zero points. p. 5. Ivy League Rugby Conference (2009-01-31). 2.

^ a b “A History of Washington and Lee Athletics”. It was also the first time one team scored over 100 points and the opposing team was shut out.[26] The next week, Princeton outscored Lafayette by 140 to 0.[27]

The first intercollegiate game in the state of Vermont happened on November 6, 1886 between Dartmouth and Vermont at Burlington, Vermont. The annual Army-Navy game was suspended from 1894 to 1898 for similar reasons.[92] One of the major problems was the popularity of mass-formations like the flying wedge, in which a large number of offensive players charged as a unit against a similarly arranged defense. The IAAUS would get its current name of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in 1910,[98] which still sets rules governing the sport.[98][99]

Further elated by the excitement of McGill’s version of football, Harvard challenged its closest rival, Yale, to which the Bulldogs accepted. 2015 NCAA Football Records: Football Bowl Subdivision Records. It was the first time organized football played in the state of Tennessee.[20] The 29th also saw the first instance of the Army-Navy Game. Retrieved 2006-11-29.

^ “1872 Rutgers Scarlet Knights Schedule and Results”. The rules committee legalized the forward pass instead. Starting with the 2015 season, the NFL uses the 15-yard line as the line of scrimmage for placekick attempts, but the two-yard line for two-point attempts. Chicago Tribune. heisman.com. Retrieved 2007-08-23.

^ “Knute Rockne”. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. At the first The Game (as the annual contest between Harvard and Yale came to be named) the future “father of American football” Walter Camp was among the 2000 spectators in attendance. Players who became famous for taking advantage of the easier passing game included Alabama end Don Hutson and TCU passer “Slingin” Sammy Baugh.[133]

College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. However, both Group of Five teams selected for New Year’s Six bowls (Boise State in 2014 and Houston in 2015) won their games.

Official rules and notable rule distinctions

See also: American football rules

Golf

Men

Women

The first game where one team scored over 100 points happened on October 25, 1884 when Yale routed Dartmouth 113-0. The series included the four most prominent bowl games (Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl), while the National Championship game rotated each year between one of these venues. 2007. Associated Press. Football Immortals. open access publication - free to read

^ “Football Squads Begin practice”. The highest seed receives automatic home field advantage. p. 3.

^ “Grantland Rice Tells Of Greatest Thrill In Years Of Watching Sport”. (1995). 2007. Football’s Greatest Coaches. The Walter Camp Foundation. FOX Sports on MSN. open access publication - free to read

^ Gardner (1996)

^ Dupont, Kevin Paul (September 23, 2004). Under the current playoff structure, the top eight teams are all seeded, and receive a bye week in the first round. The next year in 1901, Yost was hired by Charles A. Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the 1950s. Princeton won 21-18 in a hotly contested game which had Princeton dubbed the “Team of Destiny.”[110]

Although rules for the high school, college, and NFL games are generally consistent, there are several minor differences. Nelson. NCAA.com. p. 5.

^ A Ghastly Holocaust: Football Spectators Plunged into Molten Glass, The (Adelaide) Advertiser, (Friday 11 January 1901), p.6.

^ Twenty Score Persons Make Awful Plunge: Seventeen People Meet Most Awful Death: Two San Jose Men Die Amid Sizzling Shrieking Human Mass in Collapsed Factory at Big Game, The (San Jose) Evening News, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1, p.5.

^ Through a Roof to Death, The (Crawfordsville) Daily News-Review, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Spectators Fell Into Molten Glass: Thirteen Dead, One Hundred Injured by Collapse of a Roof Overlooking the Stanford-Berkeley Game at San Francisco, The (Spokane) Spokesman-Review, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1.

^ Death Reaps a Dread Harvest of Lives and Plunges City into Gloom, The San Francisco Call, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Eskanazi, J., “Sudden Death: Boys Fell to Their Doom in S.F.’s Forgotten Disaster” San Francisco Weekly News, 15 August 2012

^ a b “Timeline”. In 1934, the rules committee removed two major penalties–a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone–and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw. That changed with the debut of the four-team College Football Playoff at the end of the 2014 season.

As a result of this, Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by Rutgers, Princeton and Columbia at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City on October 20, 1873 to agree on a set of rules and regulations that would allow them to play a form of football that was essentially Association football; and continued to play under its own code. One conference champion from this group receives a spot in a New Year’s Six game. College Football Data Warehouse. In addition, if the defensive team gains possession, but then moves backwards into the end zone and is stopped, a one-point safety will be awarded to the offense, although, unlike a real safety, the offense kicks off, opposed to the team charged with the safety. Ralph Turtinen, ed. The Wolverines: A Story of Michigan Football. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ “The History of the NCAA”. The Big East split into two leagues in 2013; the schools that did not play FBS football reorganized as a new non-football Big East Conference, while the FBS member schools that remained in the original structure joined with several new members and became the American Athletic Conference. Consisting mostly of schools from Texas, the conference saw back-to-back national champions with Texas Christian University (TCU) in 1938 and Texas A&M in 1939.[128][129] The Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), a precursor to the Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12), had its own back-to-back champion in the University of Southern California which was awarded the title in 1931 and 1932.[128] The Southeastern Conference (SEC) formed in 1932 and consisted mostly of schools in the Deep South.[130] As in previous decades, the Big Ten continued to dominate in the 1930s and 1940s, with Minnesota winning 5 titles between 1934 and 1941, and Michigan (1933, 1947, and 1948) and Ohio State (1942) also winning titles.[128][131]

Map of NAIA

On December 14, 1889, Wofford defeated Furman 5 to 1 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of South Carolina. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football into the distinct sport of American football.[16]

By 1873, the college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game. The two-point conversion was not implemented in the NFL until 1994, but it had been previously used in the old American Football League (AFL) before it merged with the NFL in 1970.

The defensive team may score two points on a point-after touchdown attempt by returning a blocked kick, fumble, or interception into the opposition’s end zone. “Why California Likes Rugby”. This situation continued until 1984, when several schools brought a suit under the Sherman Antitrust Act; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals. Retrieved October 20, 2011.

^ John C. Royal went on to teach the offense to other coaches, including Bear Bryant at Alabama, Chuck Fairbanks at Oklahoma and Pepper Rodgers at UCLA; who all adapted and developed it to their own tastes.[142] The strategic opposite of the wishbone is the spread offense, developed by professional and college coaches throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Retrieved 2007-06-04.

^ “President Eliot on Football.” The School Journal, Volume 70, United Education Company, New York, Chicago, and Boston, February 18, 1905, p.188.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16-18

^ Bennett (1976), pp 20

^ Lewis, Guy M. It is claimed by Georgetown authorities as the game with the first ever “roving center” or linebacker when Percy Given stood up, in contrast to the usual tale of Germany Schulz.[56] The first linebacker in the South is often considered to be Frank Juhan.

Soccer

Men

Women

Bowl Championship Series

Main article: Bowl Championship Series

See also: NCAA Division I Football Championship

Knute Rockne rose to prominence in 1913 as an end for the University of Notre Dame, then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school. In 1927, his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped. During this streak, Michigan scored 2,831 points while allowing only 40.[35]

Field hockey

Championship

Controversy

The first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. In 1936, the Associated Press began its weekly poll of prominent sports writers, ranking all of the nation’s college football teams. OSU Alumni Association. The trophy was designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu and modeled after New York University player Ed Smith. August 22, 1900. The Division I National Championship game is held in Frisco, Texas.

The Athletic Association should now invigorate its base-ball and place it at par with its football team; and it certainly has the material with which to do it. Because the college officials could not agree upon a change in rules, it was decided over the course of several subsequent meetings that an external governing body should be responsible. The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences–the Pac-10 and Big Ten–meaning that it had limited success. Rutgers Through The Years. When Heisman left Tech after 1919, his shift was still employed by protege William Alexander.

Swimming & Diving

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Women

Bronko Nagurski Trophy

Dick Butkus Award

Jim Thorpe Award

Doak Walker Award

Campbell Trophy

Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award

Home Depot Award

Ray Guy Award

John Mackey Award

Boxing

Championship

Walter Camp, the “Father of American Football”, pictured here in 1878 as the captain of the Yale Football team

The 1893 Stanford American football team

Cross Country

Men

Women

1.3 Scoring table

1.4 Expansion

1.4.1 East

1.4.2 Mid West

1.4.3 South

1.4.4 Southwest

1.4.5 Pacific Coast

1.4.6 Mountain West

The Big Game between Stanford and California is the oldest college football rivalry in the West. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges.

The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. The only way to score was still to bat or kick the ball through the opposing team’s goal, and the game was played in two 45 minute halves on fields 140 yards long and 70 yards wide. As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games (a situation known as a tie-in), match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare. The champions of these six conferences, along with two “at-large” selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games. “Southeastern Conference”. The WAC, after seeing all but two of its football members leave, dropped football after the 2012 season. “College Football in Kansas”. Before they were nicknamed the “Trojans”, they were known as the USC Methodists.

Following the introduction of rugby-style rules to American football, Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. This is where the name came into use, as it became known as the Rose Bowl Game. nfl.com. Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the 1950s were the only decade between 1920 and 1990 when the team did not win at least a share of the national title. As a result, the official Division I National Champion is the winner of the Football Championship Subdivision, as it is the highest level of football with an NCAA-administered championship tournament.

History

See also: History of American football and History of Canadian football

New formations and play sets continued to be developed. Based on this ranking system, the No.1 and No.2 teams met each year in the national championship game. In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play. Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. But no record has been found of the score of this contest. Stanford played its 1915, 1916, and 1917 “Big Games” as rugby union against Santa Clara and California’s football “Big Game” in those years was against Washington, but both schools desired to restore the old traditions.[87] The onset of American involvement in World War I gave Stanford an out: in 1918, the Stanford campus was designated as the Students’ Army Training Corps headquarters for all of California, Nevada, and Utah, and the commanding officer, Sam M. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Seventy-four to nothing”. Outland held an experimental game in Wichita, Kansas that reduced the number of scrimmage plays to earn a first down from four to three in an attempt to reduce injuries.[96] The Los Angeles Times reported an increase in punts and considered the game much safer than regular play but that the new rule was not “conducive to the sport”.[97] In 1906, President Roosevelt organized a meeting among thirteen school leaders at the White House to find solutions to make the sport safer for the athletes. The team also played exhibition games against two Los Angeles area teams that Stanford does not include in official results.[64][65] Camp returned to the East Coast following the season, then returned to coach Stanford in 1894 and 1895.

[...]

After leaving Yale in 1882, Camp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in 1925. A selection committee of college football experts decides the participating teams. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. Journal of Sport History. Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from 1889 through 1924. Sports Publishing LLC.College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1895

^ Forgard, Benjamin. Pitt won 21-13.[109] On October 28, 1922, Princeton and Chicago played the first game to be nationally broadcast on radio. This article incorporates text from the McGill University Gazette (April 1874), two issues of The Montreal Gazette (14 May and 19 May 1874). Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent.

On Thanksgiving Day 1903, a game was scheduled in Montgomery, Alabama between the best teams from each region of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association for an “SIAA championship game”, pitting Cumberland against Heisman’s Clemson. Retrieved March 24, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. NCAA. Notre Dame remains a football independent, but is counted among the Power Five because of its full but non-football ACC membership, including a football scheduling alliance with that conference. The Anatomy of a Game. On November 25, 1911 Kansas and Missouri played the first homecoming football game.[107] The game was “broadcast” play-by-play over telegraph to at least 1,000 fans in Lawrence, Kansas.[108] It ended in a 3-3 tie. The Panthers, led by freshman Tom Davies, defeated Georgia Tech 32 to 0. Each champion of these conferences is assured of a spot in a New Year’s Six bowl, though not necessarily in a semifinal game. The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. p. 8. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ “Notre Dame Football :: UND.COM :: The Official Site of Notre Dame Athletics”. “CHC- Vandy Ties Michigan in 1922″.

^ “Alabama vs. reconnects with past, but bowl scene not the same”. The Dallas Morning News. Therefore, college football is generally considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States; one step ahead of high school competition, and one step below professional competition. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1911-1920.” National Football League. The American retained the Big East’s automatic BCS bowl bid for the 2013 season, but lost this status in the CFP era.

On 25 December 1894, Amos Alonzo Stagg’s Chicago Maroons agreed to play Camp’s Stanford football team in San Francisco in the first postseason intersectional contest, foreshadowing the modern bowl game.[66][67] Future president Herbert Hoover was Stanford’s student financial manager.[68] Chicago won 24 to 4.[69] Stanford won a rematch in Los Angeles on December 29 by 12 to 0.[70]

Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the 20th century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game. The Yale team was coached and captained by David Schley Schaff, who had learned to play football while attending Rugby school. Web.ebscohost.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. It was his last game as Clemson head coach.[57]

Bowl games

Main articles: Bowl game and List of college bowl games

Tennis

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Women

At the beginning of the first semester in the fall of ’90 the boys rooming at the dormitory on the campus of the U. “Two-point conversion turns 50.” The NCAA News. Prescott Evening Courier.

^ “Ball Under The Jersey”. p. 15 – via Google books. Warner picked up the trick and later used it at Cornell against Penn State in 1897.[50] He then used it in 1903 at Carlisle against Harvard and garnered national attention.

Canadian football, which parallels American football, is played by collegiate teams in Canada under the auspices of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Goddard were playing coaches for the first team which was put together by quarterback Arthur Carroll; who in turn volunteered to make the pants for the team and later became a tailor.[61] USC faced its first collegiate opponent the following year in fall 1889, playing St. Retrieved December 27, 2011.

^ Sciullo Jr, Sam, ed. Kansas Historical Quarterly. sporting event.[76]

Glenn “Pop” Warner coached at several schools throughout his career, including the University of Georgia, Cornell University, University of Pittsburgh, Stanford University, and Temple University.[121] One of his most famous stints was at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where he coached Jim Thorpe, who went on to become the first president of the National Football League, an Olympic Gold Medalist, and is widely considered one of the best overall athletes in history.[122][123] Warner wrote one of the first important books of football strategy, Football for Coaches and Players, published in 1927.[124] Though the shift was invented by Stagg, Warner’s single wing and double wing formations greatly improved upon it; for almost 40 years, these were among the most important formations in football. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ “Likes Yost’s Manner: President Jordan of Leland Stanford University Gives His Opinion of the Coach”. From Maverick to Mainstream: Cumberland School of Law, 1847-1997. (Unlike in the United States, no junior colleges play football in Canada, and the sanctioning body for junior college athletics in Canada, CCAA, does not sanction the sport.) However, amateur football outside of colleges is played in Canada, such as in the Canadian Junior Football League. Georgia’s 1927 “dream and wonder team” defeated Yale for the first time. Yale initially refused to join this association because of a disagreement over the number of players to be allowed per team (relenting in 1879) and Rutgers were not invited to the meeting. Minnesota won 2 to 0.[36] It was the first game west of the Mississippi River.

One publication claims “The first scouting done in the South was in 1905, when Dan McGugin and Captain Innis Brown, of Vanderbilt went to Atlanta to see Sewanee play Georgia Tech.”[111]Fuzzy Woodruff claims Davidson was the first in the south to throw a legal forward pass in 1906. The game featured no uniforms, no positions, and the rules were formulated before the game.[44]

Columbia University was the third school to field a team. Heisman Trophy. April 16, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Stanford Game-by-Game Results; 1892-1895″. They remained largely “mob” style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. Retrieved 2009-02-18.

^ Nelson (1994), pp 48

^ “Big Ten History”. A (October 1913 – March 1914). In Baldwin City, Kansas, on November 22, 1890, college football was first played in the state of Kansas. During that game, a large group of men and boys, who were observing from the roof of the nearby S.F. The team leading after both possessions is declared the winner. The best collegiate players will typically declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring. NFL.com. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ Greg Roza, Football in the SEC (Southeastern Conference), p. Eugene, Oregon: McCann Communications Corp. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. Football: The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession. reprinted from Official Super Bowl XXXIII Game Program.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 46-48

^ Vancil (2000), pp 56

^ Bennett (1976), Appendix pp 209-217

^ a b Call, Jeff (December 20, 2006). American athletes of the century”. ISBN 1-57167-116-1. (1991). In the post-season, if the teams are still tied, teams will play additional overtime periods until either team scores.)

Extra point tries are attempted from the three-yard line. April 15, 2011. It took place at Hamilton Park in New Haven and was the first game in New England. Committee Urges Football Playoff”. Organized competition in American football also exists at the collegiate level in Mexico (ONEFA), the UK (British Universities American Football League), Japan (Japan American Football Association, Koshien Bowl), and South Korea (Korea American Football Association).

Partly as a compromise between both bowl game and playoff supporters, the NCAA created the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) in 1998 in order to create a definitive National Championship game for college football. San Francisco Chronicle. It is in college football where a player’s performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The Rose Bowl included Roy Riegels’ wrong-way run. In the NFL the clock does not explicitly stop for a first down.

Overtime was introduced in 1996, eliminating ties. “The Birth of OSU Football”. November 7, 1886. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Professional Football Researchers Association. ISBN 0-9648244-7-7.

^ a b Libby, Brian. The Research Quarterly. The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to. February 19, 1911. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. ESPN. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “Florida Power:The Early Years”. The first intercollegiate game between official varsity teams was played on November 22, 1901. It also became increasingly violent. These games are played from mid-December to early January and most of the later bowl games are typically considered more prestigious.

[...]

Cross Country

Men

Women

Water polo

Men

Women

The University of Oregon began playing American football in 1894 and played its first game on March 24, 1894, defeating Albany College 44-3 under head coach Cal Young.[77][78][79] Cal Young left after that first game and J.A. 16 Stanford”. Camp’s most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterback, was also passed in 1880. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ “The History of Walter Camp”. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1869-1910.” National Football League. In the NFL a player is active until he is tackled or forced down by a member of the opposing team (down by contact).

The clock stops after the offense completes a first down and begins again–assuming it is following a play in which the clock would not normally stop–once the referee says the ball is ready for play. Washington and Lee won 4-2.[38] Some industrious students of the two schools organized a game for October 23, 1869 – but it was rained out.[39] Students of the University of Virginia were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim it organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871; but no record has been found of the score of this contest. The annual National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision is then instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players.

College football outside the United States

See also: List of college football games played outside the United States

Institutions

Baseball

Championship/CWS

In 1940, for the highest level of college football, there were only five bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton). Retrieved 2008-10-06.

^ a b c Bennett (1976), pp 20-21

^ “ESPN.com: Top N. Pomona College was invited to enter, but declined to do so. The system still did not include the Big Ten, Pac-10, or the Rose Bowl, and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship.[145][147] However, one positive side effect is that if there were three teams at the end of the season vying for a national title, but one of them was a Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to the Rose Bowl, then there would be no difficulty in deciding which teams to place in the Bowl Alliance “national championship” bowl; if the Pac-10/Big Ten team won the Rose Bowl and finished with the same record as whichever team won the other bowl game, they could have a share of the national title. It is still usually regarded as the first game of college football.[3][6][7][8] The game was played at a Rutgers field. The trophy recognizes the nation’s “most outstanding” college football player and has become one of the most coveted awards in all of American sports.[134]

1.5 Violence, formation of NCAA

1.6 Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

1.6.1 Rise of the South

1.6.1.1 Heisman shift

1.6.1.2 Notable intersectional games

Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=College_football&oldid=738179815″

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Minnesota on September 30, 1882 when Hamline was convinced to play Minnesota. The President’s sons were also playing football at the college and secondary levels at the time.[95]

In 1909, the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference was founded, featuring four members: Colorado, Colorado College, Colorado School of Mines, and Colorado Agricultural College. In 1992, seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the Bowl Coalition, which attempted to arrange an annual No.1 versus No.2 matchup based on the final AP poll standings. While Harvard’s voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play the rugby team of McGill University, from Montreal, in a two-game series. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. If the teams remain tied, overtime periods continue, with a coin flip determining the first possession. Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in 1878: a reduction from fifteen players to eleven. 111, Issue 8

Brian M. Modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The semifinals are hosted by two of a group of six traditional bowl games often called the “New Year’s Six”, with semifinal hosting rotating annually among three pairs of games in the following order: Rose/Sugar, Orange/Cotton, and Fiesta/Peach. Both Donahue and McGugin just came from the north that year, Donahue from Yale and McGugin from Michigan, and were among the initial inductees of the College Football Hall of Fame. “Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics”, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988

^ Infamous 1874 McGill-Harvard game turns 132 at McGill Athletics, published by McGill University (no further authorship information available). “Michigan-Chicago 1905: The First Greatest Game of the Century” (PDF). 18, No. On June 4, 1875, Harvard faced Tufts University in the first game between two American colleges played under rules similar to the McGill/Harvard contest, which was won by Tufts.[14] The rules included each side fielding 11 men at any given time, the ball was advanced by kicking or carrying it, and tackles of the ball carrier stopped play.[15]

Swimming & Diving

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Women

NCAA Division I Football Championship[151] – playoff for determining the national champion at the second highest level of college football, Division I FCS, from 1978 to present.

NCAA Division I FCS Consensus Mid-Major Football National Championship – awarded by poll from 2001- to 2007 for a subset of the second highest level of play in college football, FCS.

As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the 1930s, college football garnered increased national attention. An intercollegiate game was first played in the state of New York when Rutgers played Columbia on November 2, 1872. ACTIVE.com. Athens, Georgia: E. p. 4.

^ “Stanford’s Football Coach Has Arrived”. Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.[16]Rugby league followed Camp’s example, and in 1906 introduced the play-the-ball rule, which greatly resembled Camp’s early scrimmage and center-snap rules. The other three current FBS independents, Army, BYU, and Massachusetts, are also considered to be part of this group. Stone. The first game was played on San Francisco’s Haight Street Grounds on March 19, 1892 with Stanford winning 14-10. Retrieved 2012-10-22.

^ “Parke H. Starting with the 2006 season, a fifth game–simply called the BCS National Championship Game–was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game. 2006. The game features prominently in Vanderbilt’s history.[118] That same year, Alabama upset Penn 9 to 7.[119]

Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.[6][7][16] As a youth, he excelled in sports like track, baseball, and association football, and after enrolling at Yale in 1876, he earned varsity honors in every sport the school offered.[16]

The following was taken from the Silver & Gold newspaper of December 16, 1898. Professional Football Researchers Association. Clemson, Cumberland, Kentucky, LSU, Mercer, Mississippi, Mississippi A&M (Mississippi State), Southwestern Presbyterian University, Tennessee, Texas, Tulane, and the University of Nashville joined the following year in 1895 as invited charter members.[46] The conference was originally formed for “the development and purification of college athletics throughout the South”.[47]

Single-division sports

^ While Still the Nation’s Favorite Sport, Professional Football Drops in Popularity – Baseball and college football are next in popularity at the Harris Interactive website, accessed 28 January 2010.

^ “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries” (PDF). “From Football to Rugby–and Back, 1906-1919: The University of California-Stanford University Response to the “Football Crisis of 1905″” (PDF). p. D5.

^ a b “College Bowl Games”. Other important changes, formally adopted in 1910, were the requirements that at least seven offensive players be on the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap, that there be no pushing or pulling, and that interlocking interference (arms linked or hands on belts and uniforms) was not allowed. It was a recollection of the birth of Colorado football written by one of CU’s original gridders, John C. They decided to play with 15 players on each team. open access publication - free to read

^ a b “Brown Calls Vanderbilt ’06 Best Eleven South Ever Had”. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ White, Gordon (January 8, 1979). The BCS system was slightly adjusted in 2006, as the NCAA added a fifth game to the series, called the National Championship Game. 17 (1).

^ Ratcliffe, Jerry (2008). Retrieved April 12, 2011.

^ “Timeline of Yale Football”. Starting in 2013, non-seeded teams can only host a playoff game if both teams involved are unseeded; in such a matchup, the schools must bid for the right to host the game. The Kingsport Times. The Harvard students took to the rugby rules and adopted them as their own,[3][10][11] The games featured a round ball instead of a rugby-style oblong ball.[11] This series of games represents an important milestone in the development of the modern game of American football.[12][13] In October 1874, the Harvard team once again traveled to Montreal to play McGill in rugby, where they won by three tries.

College football expanded greatly during the last two decades of the 19th century. The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength. As reasons for the change, the school cited rule change back to American football, the overwhelming desire of students and supporters to play American football, interest in playing other East Coast and Midwest schools, and a patriotic desire to play an “American” game.[87] California’s return to American football increased the pressure on Stanford to also change back in order to maintain the rivalry. (In the NFL overtime is decided by a 15-minute sudden-death quarter, and regular season games can still end in a tie if neither team scores. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “Series of rules changes approved”. USC Trojans. Though some coaches, such as General Robert Neyland at Tennessee, continued to eschew its use, several rules changes to the game had a profound effect on teams’ ability to throw the ball. Stevens lost to Columbia, but beat both New York University and City College of New York during the following year.

In the early 1930s, the college game continued to grow, particularly in the South, bolstered by fierce rivalries such as the “South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Virginia and North Carolina and the “Deep South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Georgia and Auburn. The Walter Camp Football Foundation continues to select All-American teams in his honor.[17]

Started in the 2014 season, four Division I FBS teams are selected at the end of regular season to compete in a playoff for the FBS national championship. NFL Enterprises LLC. The term “Big Game” was first used in 1900, when it was played on Thanksgiving Day in San Francisco. In the Rugby rules of the time, a try only provided the attempt to kick a free goal from the field. pp. 285-311. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football. The History of Sports. December 18, 1930. 1, 2007, ISBN 1-4042-1919-6.

^ Bailey, John Wendell (1924). The Boston Globe.

^ a b c d e f “Camp and His Followers: American Football 1876-1889″ (PDF). Retrieved March 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. “The Evolution of School Spirit and Tradition at Oregon State University” (PDF). 11 (3): 33.

^ Goldsmith, A. Navy won 24-0.

Division I FBS National Championship Games

Main articles: Bowl Championship Series and College Football Playoff

Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football. open access publication - free to read

^ DeLassus, David. Princeton won that game by a score of 8 – 0. Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former. Walter, who would enroll at Yale the next year, was torn between an admiration for Harvard’s style of play and the misery of the Yale defeat, and became determined to avenge Yale’s defeat. Kicked tries count as one point. 2006. The two semifinal winners then advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship, whose host is determined by open bidding several years in advance.

Utilizing the “jump shift” offense, John Heisman’s Georgia Tech Golden Tornado won 222 to 0 over Cumberland on October 7, 1916, at Grant Field in the most lopsided victory in college football history.[114] Tech went on a 33-game winning streak during this period. October 3, 2010.

^ a b c d e f g h i j Park, Roberta J (Winter 1984). 2012-05-14. McGill football game

Volleyball

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The first college football game in Oklahoma Territory occurred on November 7, 1895 when the ‘Oklahoma City Terrors’ defeated the Oklahoma Sooners 34 to 0. How to Scout Football. p. 128.

^ Langum, David J. The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field (now Vanderbilt Stadium), the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football. September 14, 1923.

^ cf. Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. At all other levels of football, plus all other touchback situations under NCAA rules, the ball is placed on the 20.

Among other rule changes in 2007, kickoffs were moved from the 35-yard line back five yards to the 30-yard line, matching a change that the NFL had made in 1994.

During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces, some playing in Europe during the war. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ Celizic, Mike (December 9, 2006). He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.[121][126]

American college football

Lacrosse

Men

Women

College Football Playoff

College athletics in the United States

College Football Hall of Fame

College football on radio

College football on television

Helmet stickers

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

Volleyball

Women

Events listed in italics have been discontinued.

and championships

After the first game against Harvard, Tufts took its squad to Bates College in Lewiston, Maine for the first football game played in Maine.[23] This occurred on November 6, 1875.

A pass is ruled complete if one of the receiver’s feet is inbounds at the time of the catch. 256 players are selected annually. The game was essentially soccer with 20-man sides, played on a field 400 by 250 feet. This allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans. Oregon finished the season with two additional losses and a tie, but went undefeated the following season, winning all four of its games under head coach Percy Benson.[79][80][81] In 1899, the Oregon football team left the state for the first time, playing the California Golden Bears in Berkeley, California.[77]

No sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory.

Early games

Main article: 1869 college football season

Awards

Softball

Championship

CWS

Football teams in Division I are further divided into the Bowl Subdivision (consisting of the largest programs) and the Championship Subdivision. A Harvard tradition known as “Bloody Monday” began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. Professional Football Researchers Association. These changes greatly reduced the potential for collision injuries.[101] Several coaches emerged who took advantage of these sweeping changes. (Audio help)

More spoken articles

Basketball

Men

Women

Ice hockey

Men

Women

Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional “mob football” played in England. Paul Hornung, Notre Dame quarterback, did, however, win the Heisman in 1956, becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so.[136][137]

Softball

Championship/WCWS

National Collegiate Athletic Association

In May 1900, Yost was hired as the football coach at Stanford University,[84] and, after traveling home to West Virginia, he arrived in Palo Alto, California, on August 21, 1900.[85] Yost led the 1900 Stanford team to a 7-2-1, outscoring opponents 154 to 20. The Strode Publishers. Honus Craig then ran in the winning touchdown.

The 10 FBS conferences are formally and popularly divided into two groups:

Rowing

Women

Scoring table

Historical college football scoring[18]

Era

Touchdown

Field goal

Conversion (kick)

Conversion (touchdown)

Safety

Conversion safety

Defensive conversion

1883

2

5

4

-

1

-

-

1883-1897

4

5

2

-

2

-

-

1898-1903

5

5

1

-

2

-

-

1904-1908

5

4

1

-

2

-

-

1909-1911

5

3

1

-

2

-

-

1912-1957

6

3

1

-

2

-

-

1958-1987

6

3

1

2

2

1

-

1988-present

6

3

1

2

2

1

2

Note: For brief periods in the late 19th century, some penalties awarded one or more points for the opposing teams, and some teams in the late 19th and early 20th centuries chose to negotiate their own scoring system for individual games.

Expansion

Map of Division I (A) FBS

College football increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th and early 20th century. The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also holds a playoff.

Map of NCAA Division II

Field hockey

Championship

NCAA football official site

Composite television schedule of NCAA football games

Statistics

College Football at d1sportsnet.com

College Football at Sports-Reference.com

Stassen College Football, comprehensive college football database

College Football Data Warehouse

Gridiron History

Rules

NCAA Football 2011 and 2012 Rules and Interpretations

Maps

Google Map of Division II Football Programs

Map of FBS Teams and Conferences

Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

See also

Awards

Hall of Champions

Conferences

Coaching

Main article: Head coach § College football

National championships

College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS – Overview of systems for determining national champions at the highest level of college football from 1869 to present.

College Football Playoff – 4 team playoff system for determining national champions at the highest level of college football beginning in 2014.

Bowl Championship Series – The primary method of determining the national champion at the highest level of college football from 1998-2013; preceded by the Bowl Alliance (1995-1997) and the Bowl Coalition (1992-1994).

At the Division I FCS level, the teams participate in a 24-team playoff (most recently expanded from 20 teams in 2013) to determine the national championship. Division I generally consists of the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities, and (with the exception of a few conferences such as the Pioneer Football League) more athletic scholarships. Hickok Sports. On October 20, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City to codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. On 1 January 1902, Yost’s dominating 1901 Michigan Wolverines football team agreed to play a 3-1-2 team from Stanford University in the inaugural “Tournament East-West football game what is now known as the Rose Bowl Game by a score of 49-0 after Stanford captain Ralph Fisher requested to quit with eight minutes remaining.

Bowling

Women

Volleyball

Men

Women

In 1891, the first Stanford football team was hastily organized and played a four-game season beginning in January 1892 with no official head coach. p. 95.

^ Ray Dozier. Davis ’93 On Harvard Football”. Other games came along and used the term “bowl”, whether the stadium was shaped like a bowl or not.

Southwest

Following the enormous success of the 1958 NFL Championship Game, college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level. Colorado found much success in its early years, winning eight Colorado Football Association Championships (1894-97, 1901-08).

1904 Vanderbilt team in action.

On November 13, 1887 the Virginia Cavaliers and Pantops Academy fought to a scoreless tie in the first organized football game in the state of Virginia.[42] Students at UVA were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim that some industrious ones organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871, just two years after Rutgers and Princeton’s historic first game in 1869. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 20

^ “WorldCat entry for Football for Coaches and Players”. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “NCAA Football Rules Committee Votes To Restore Plays While Attempting To Maintain Shorter Overall Game Time”. In the first two seasons of the CFP, the Group of Five has yet to place a team in a semifinal. By 1950, three more had joined that number and in 1970, there were still only eight major college bowl games. Retrieved 13 October 2011.

^ “Tarheels Credited With Throwing First Forward Pass”. At-large teams could be chosen from any of the Division I conferences, though only one selection–Utah in 2005–came from a non-BCS affiliated conference. Los Angeles Times. For example, the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games. In 1914, the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. lumbia joined the series in 1870, and by 1872 several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology.[3]

Brown enters the intercollegiate game in 1878.[25]

A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force

College football is a controversial institution within American higher education, where the amount of money involved–what people will pay for the entertainment provided–is a corrupting factor within universities that they are usually ill-equipped to deal with.[154][155] According to William E. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association. The Bowl Subdivision has historically not used an organized tournament to determine its champion, and instead teams compete in post-season bowl games. For the current season of Bowl Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. Camp’s innovations in the area of point scoring influenced rugby union’s move to point scoring in 1890. It was also the first scoreless tie in the history of the fledgling sport.[21]Yale football starts the same year and has its first match against Columbia, the nearest college to play football. MSN Encarta. Lawrence Journal-World. The undefeated 1904 Vanderbilt team scored an average of 52.7 points per game, the most in college football that season, and allowed just four points.

Division II and Division III of the NCAA also participate in their own respective playoffs, crowning national champions at the end of the season. Stanford: Home of Champions. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.[125] The 1924 team featured the Four Horsemen backfield. The CFP is a four-team tournament whose participants are chosen and seeded by a 13-member selection committee. MSNBC. Bradbury Robinson, playing for visionary coach Eddie Cochems at Saint Louis University, threw the first legal pass in a September 5, 1906, game against Carroll College at Waukesha. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Amos Alonzo Stagg and Football at Chicago”.

^ Edwin Pope. Weyand (1962). The two teams agreed to play under a set of rules called the “Concessionary Rules”, which involved Harvard conceding something to Yale’s soccer and Yale conceding a great deal to Harvard’s rugby. “Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Foot Ball”. 63: 742-750.

^ “History”. Reading Eagle. Deseret News. President Theodore Roosevelt reportedly threatened to shut down the game if drastic changes were not made.[94] However, the threat by Roosevelt to eliminate football is disputed by sports historians. That game was so lopsided that the game was not played annually until 1916, when the Tournament of Roses decided to reattempt the postseason game. Nixon, also the school’s second captain. The Terrors were a mix of Methodist college students and high schoolers.[58] The Sooners did not manage a single first down. Yale wins 3-0, Tommy Sherman scoring the first goal and Lew Irwin the other two.[22]

American football at Oregon State University started in 1893 shortly after athletics were initially authorized at the college. Evolvements of Early American Foot Ball: Through the 1890/91 Season. Retrieved April 6, 2011.

^ “The History of Homecoming”. At the birth of cable television and cable sports networks like ESPN, there were fifteen bowls in 1980. Tar Heel Times. open access publication - free to read

^ “Mansfield, Pennsylvania – It happened one night – First Football under lights – Mansfield PA 1892″. p. 4.

^ “USC Football Heads To Bay Area To Face No. Journals.humankinetics.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. The game suffered from disorganization and the players kicked and battled each other as much as the ball. By next season, Oklahoma coach John A. Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to “spread” the field both horizontally and vertically.[143] Some teams have managed to adapt with the times to keep winning consistently. The high school won 24 to 0.[59]

College teams mostly play other similarly sized schools through the NCAA’s divisional system. Journal of Sport History, Vol. The Lions traveled from New York City to New Brunswick on November 12, 1870 and were defeated by Rutgers 6 to 3. Nixon (1898-12-16). August 2008. (California’s two-year institutions are not under NJCAA jurisdiction and only compete for state championships.)

Club football, a sport in which student clubs run the teams instead of the colleges themselves, is overseen by two organizations: the National Club Football Association and the Intercollegiate Club Football Federation. Also, rules were changed to add the champions of five additional conferences (Conference USA [C-USA], the Mid-American Conference [MAC], the Mountain West Conference [MW], the Sun Belt Conference and the Western Athletic Conference [WAC]), provided that said champion ranked in the top twelve in the final BCS rankings, or was within the top 16 of the BCS rankings and ranked higher than the champion of at least one of the “BCS conferences” (also known as “AQ” conferences, for Automatic Qualifying).[147] Several times since this rule change was implemented, schools from non-AQ conferences have played in BCS bowl games. Echoes of Oklahoma Sooners Football: The Greatest Stories Ever Told. “Gridiron gridlock: Citing research, Tufts claims football history is on its side”. The game was won by Tufts 1-0[9] Harvard beat McGill in the “Boston Game” on the Thursday and held McGill to a 0-0 tie on the Friday. Four new bowl games were created: the Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, the Sun Bowl in 1935, and the Cotton Bowl in 1937. Schaff himself was injured and unable to the play the game, but Yale won the game 3-0 nonetheless. Arlin announced that year’s Backyard Brawl played at Forbes Field on KDKA. Pop Warner’s Pittsburgh Panthers were also undefeated, but declined a challenge by Heisman to a game. Retrieved March 24, 2015.

^ “Concise Encyclopedia of Tufts History”.

^ “Penn Football:Origins To 1901″.

^ Mark F. Sumner (1990). “Too many bowl games? Nonsense”. For the first time, it included all major conferences (ACC, Big East, Big 12, Big Ten, Pac-10, and SEC) and four major bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar and Fiesta). It ended when Stanford requested and Michigan agreed to end it with 8 minutes on the clock. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2012.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to College football.

Mountain West

Map of CCCAA

Wrestling

Championship

Wrestling

Championship

The Virginia Cavaliers (orange and blue home uniforms) play against the Penn State Nittany Lions (all-white away uniforms) in 2012 in Scott Stadium.

A night game between Harvard and Brown, September 25, 2009

The Big Game between Stanford and California was played as rugby union from 1906 to 1914.

Vanderbilt’s line coach then was Wallace Wade, who in 1925 coached Alabama to the south’s first Rose Bowl victory. Sports Publishing LLC. Division II primarily consists of smaller public and private institutions that offer fewer scholarships than those in Division I. Retrieved January 14, 2013.

^ Alan Gould (January 24, 1931). Pennsylvania”. He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. Journal of Sport History. Messrs Carney, Whittaker, Layton and others, who at that time constituted a majority of the male population of the University, called a meeting of the campus boys in the old medical building. This game is commonly referred to as “the game that changed the south.”[120] Wade followed up the next season with an undefeated record and Rose Bowl tie. The Official National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Guide. It also had the first two players from the Deep South selected first-team All-American in Walker Carpenter and Everett Strupper. Several major rivalries date from this time period.

Power Five – Five of the six AQ conferences of the BCS era, specifically the ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC. In 1995, the Coalition was replaced by the Bowl Alliance, which reduced the number of bowl games to host a national championship game to three–the Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange Bowls–and the participating conferences to five–the ACC, SEC, Southwest, Big Eight, and Big East. 2001. For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions.[147]

Listen to this article (info/dl)

With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 24

^ “Marching Band History”. 2007. Six major bowl games (the Rose, Sugar, Cotton, Orange, Peach, and Fiesta) rotate on a three-year cycle as semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship. While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late 1950s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties.[138][139][140]

Durung 12 seasons of playing rugby union, Stanford was remarkably successful: the team had three undefeated seasons, three one-loss seasons, and an overall record of 94 wins, 20 losses, and 3 ties for a winning percentage of .816. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 18

^ John S. Following the season, Stanford captain John Whittemore wrote to Yale coach Walter Camp asking him to recommend a coach for Stanford. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada.

On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey) in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football. Augusta Computer Services. Accessed 29 January 2007.

^ a b Parke H. Retrieved 2008-01-16.

^ A compilation of seven sources:

“History.” 2009 Baylor Football Media Almanac. An invitation was also extended to Los Angeles High School.[62]

South

1902 football game between the University of Minnesota and the University of Michigan

Soccer

Men

Women

A college that fields a team in the NCAA is not restricted from fielding teams in club or sprint football, and several colleges field two teams, a varsity (NCAA) squad and a club or sprint squad (no schools, as of 2015, field both club and sprint teams at the same time).

Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as “football”, played at public schools in England in the mid-19th century. For the video game series, see NCAA Football series. Also in 1887, two paid officials–a referee and an umpire–were mandated for each game. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ “Kickoffs from 30 yard line could create more returns, injuries”. Heisman pressed hardest for Cumberland to get the claim of champion. Bernstein. Later in 1872, Stevens Tech became the fifth school to field a team. Dartmouth won 91 to 0.[28]

The 1905 season marked the first meeting between Stanford and USC. National Collegiate Athletic Association: 71-75.

^ Davis, Parke H. The inaugural champion was Ohio State University.[152] The College Football Playoff replaced the Bowl Championship Series, which had been used as the selection method to determine the national championship game participants since in the 1998 season.

Meanwhile, John H. Amos Alonzo Stagg introduced such innovations as the huddle, the tackling dummy, and the pre-snap shift.[102] Other coaches, such as Pop Warner and Knute Rockne, introduced new strategies that still remain part of the game.

The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics has jurisdiction over more than 80 college football teams, mostly in the midwest.

The National Junior College Athletic Association has jurisdiction over two-year institutions. In the NFL both feet must be inbounds.

A player is considered down when any part of his body other than the feet or hands touches the ground or when the ball carrier is tackled or otherwise falls and loses possession of the ball as he contacts the ground with any part of his body, with the sole exception of the holder for field goal and extra point attempts. From 1980 to 2008, an additional 20 bowl games were added to the schedule.[144][145] Some have criticized this growth, claiming that the increased number of games has diluted the significance of playing in a bowl game. December 30, 1894. TheGame.org. University of Illinois. Yost, Michigan became the first “western” national power. It has its own arrangement for access to the New Year’s Six games should it meet certain standards.

Group of Five – The remaining five FBS conferences – American, C-USA, MAC, MW, and Sun Belt. p. 64.

^ “Spotlight Athletics:”. Its result was “a great surprise to the sporting world.”[117] Commodore fans celebrated by throwing some 3,000 seat cushions onto the field. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear.

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Virginia and the south on November 2, 1873 in Lexington between Washington and Lee and VMI. Los Angeles Herald. A player could carry the ball only when being pursued.

Modern college football (since 1958)

Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. Retrieved March 27, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. p. 3. With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Retrieved March 13, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. November 22, 1893.

^ a b Migdol, Gary (1997). Rules were simple, violence and injury were common.[3][4] The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. Dubbed “The First Greatest Game of the Century,”[37] broke Michigan’s 56-game unbeaten streak and marked the end of the “Point-a-Minute” years.

Field hockey

Championship

University of Wisconsin football team, 1903. In the rankings of the most victorious programs, Michigan, Texas, and Notre Dame are ranked first, second, and third in total wins.

A college football game between Texas Tech and Navy

Basketball

Men

Women

Division III

Institutions

Baseball

Championship/CWS

The 1899 Sewanee Tigers are one of the all-time great teams of the early sport. “Vandy’s Great Victory Will Live In History”. Boston Daily Globe. Due to scantness of records of the prior matches some will claim Virginia v. Incidentally, rugby was to make a similar change to its scoring system 10 years later.[16]

Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period. Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed, but there was plenty of physical contact between players. Football came back in 1872, when Columbia played Yale for the first time. Instead, it has a series of postseason “bowl games”. Reeves had a crude leather helmet made by a shoemaker in Annapolis and wore it in the game after being warned by his doctor that he risked death if he continued to play football after suffering an earlier kick to the head.[30]

Map of Division I (AA) FCS

Harvard vs. Finally, on December 28, 1905, 62 schools met in New York City to discuss rule changes to make the game safer. Tech center Bum Day was the first player on a Southern team ever selected first-team All-American by Walter Camp.

Ice hockey

Men

Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University (1869-1909) opposing football in 1905.[91]

Skiing

Championships

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

– John C. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Ours, Robert M. p. 116.

^ “Princeton-Chicago football game is broadcast across the country”.

^ George Allen. In the NFL, only scoring plays, turnovers, the final 2:00 of each half and all overtime periods are reviewed, and coaches are issued two challenges (with the option for a 3rd if the first two are successful).

Starting in the 2012 season, the ball is placed on the 25-yard line following a touchback on a kickoff. British Columbia Rugby Union. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “100 years ago: Football fans enjoy mechanized reproduction of KU-MU game”. The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in 1915. and Pacific Glass Works, fell into the fiery interior of the building when the roof collapsed, resulting in 13 dead and 78 injured.[71][72][73][74][75] On December 4, 1900, the last victim of the disaster (Fred Lilly) died, bringing the death toll to 22; and, to this day, the “Thanksgiving Day Disaster” remains the deadliest accident to kill spectators at a U.S. To Whittemore’s surprise, Camp agreed to coach the team himself, on the condition that he finish the season at Yale first.[63] As a result of Camp’s late arrival, Stanford played just three official games, against San Francisco’s Olympic Club and rival California. “Yellow Jackets-Cumberland Score Was Record One; Tops the List According to Statistics Compiled Showing All Scores Past the Century Mark”. A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton’s own set of rules (one notable difference was the awarding of a “free kick” to any player that caught the ball on the fly, which was a feature adopted from the Football Association’s rules; the fair catch kick rule has survived through to modern American game). Though he lectured on eliminating and reducing injuries, he never threatened to ban football. Parker, decreed that American football was the appropriate athletic activity to train soldiers and rugby union was dropped.[87]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about gridiron football played at a collegiate level in the United States. Smith. Pantops Academy November 13, 1887 as the first game in Virginia.

An 1894 football game in Staunton, Virginia between VMI and Virginia Tech.

Rowing

Women

It was voted that the officers constitute a committee to provide uniform suits in which to play what was called “association football”. In 1952, the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights. LA 84 Foundation: 54-57. The two competing sanctioning bodies have some overlap, and several clubs are members of both organizations.

The Collegiate Sprint Football League governs nine teams, all in the northeast. Retrieved 2016-01-24.

Don Hutson in 1940.

Inasmuch as Rugby football had been transplanted to Canada from England, the McGill team played under a set of rules which allowed a player to pick up the ball and run with it whenever he wished. 100 Years of Golden Gopher Football. ISBN 978-0873970556.

^ “Harvard Football Timeline”. “Section 11–Extra Points.” 2008 Football Statisticians’ Manual. This computer system, which factored in newspaper polls, online polls, coaches’ polls, strength of schedule, and various other factors of a team’s season, led to much dispute over whether the two best teams in the country were being selected to play in the National Championship Game.

From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

In 1906, citing concerns about the violence in American Football, universities on the West Coast, led by California and Stanford, replaced the sport with rugby union.[87] At the time, the future of American football was very much in doubt and these schools believed that rugby union would eventually be adopted nationwide.[87] Other schools fllowed suit and also made the switch included Nevada, St. Associated Press. p. 21. On May 30, 1879 Michigan beat Racine College 1-0 in a game played in Chicago. Baird as the head football coach for the Michigan Wolverines football team. There has been serious discussion about making student-athletes university employees to allow them to be paid.[159][160][161][162]

As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. The game featured the season’s two best defenses and included a goal line stand by Vanderbilt to preserve the tie. colleges or universities – Papa John’s Cardinal Stadium at the University of Louisville and FAU Stadium at Florida Atlantic University – consist entirely of chairback seating.)

Knute Rockne

Kickoff during the 1916 Colorado – Utah game

The 1905 Utah football team

References

The BCS selection committee used a complicated, and often controversial, computer system to rank all Division 1-FBS teams and the top two teams at the end of the season played for the National Championship. Must Allow Colleges to Pay Athletes, Judge Rules”, New York Times, August 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/09/sports/federal-judge-rules-against-ncaa-in-obannon-case.html

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Florida in 1901.[54] A 7-game series between intramural teams from Stetson and Forbes occurred in 1894. Retrieved 2008-04-06.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 19-22

^ Vancil (2000), pp 24-29

^ a b c MacCambridge (1999), pp 124

^ “A Look Back at the Southwest Conference”. For other uses, see College football (disambiguation).

“NCAA football” redirects here. Ingrassia, The Rise of Gridiron University: Higher Education’s Uneasy Alliance with Big-Time Football. The mass plays being now barred, skill on the football field is more in demand than mere weight and strength.

Several organizations operate college football programs outside the jurisdiction of the NCAA:

Tennis

Men

Women

In 1879, the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. NFL.com. Every play is subject to booth review with coaches only having one challenge. National Collegiate Athletic Association. In 1887, game time was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ McCann, Michael C. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition, housing, and books.[2]

Tennis

Men

Women

The 1894 Harvard-Yale game, known as the “Hampden Park Blood Bath”, resulted in crippling injuries for four players; the contest was suspended until 1897. These deaths could be attributed to the mass formations and gang tackling that characterized the sport in its early years.

On October 18, 1888, the Wake Forest Demon Deacons defeated the North Carolina Tar Heels 6 to 4 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of North Carolina.[43]

Teams in each of these four divisions are further divided into various regional conferences.

Led by coach Fielding H. “Sewanee, long-lost member of the SEC”.

^ “On the 7th Day They Rested” (PDF).

^ “Grantland Rice”. It was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. pp. 11-13. p. 179.

^ a b Mal Florence et al., The Trojan Heritage, 2004 USC Football Media Guide, USC Athletic Department, pp. John Roberts.

^ Robin Lester (Summer 1991). The NFL has a similar rule in the final minute of the half, but it applies only to specified violations against the offensive team. Wade’s Alabama again won a national championship and Rose Bowl in 1930.

In 1998, a new system was put into place called the Bowl Championship Series. Overtime for regular season games in the NFL began with the 1974 season

Investors Are Betting on DraftKings; Fantasy Sports Startup Raises $1.4 Million in Seed Capital

September 9, 2016 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in betting baseball

Daily fantasy sports games. Thirty-two million

people play fantasy sports in the US and Canada, and two-thirds of all

fantasy sports leagues involve fees and payouts that are typically

managed offline by a designated member of the league. Players can pick a new team whenever they choose,

which is much more fun than scrounging to substitute mid-season.

1. No more season long commitments.

To learn more about DraftKings, please visit www.draftkings.com.

Fantasy sports games are considered games of skill in forty-four states,

making playing with financial stakes perfectly legal. Currently offering daily fantasy sports play options in

major league fantasy baseball, DraftKings will use the capital raised to

fund marketing and product development in anticipation of the 2012

fantasy football, fantasy basketball, and fantasy hockey seasons.

. Atlas Venture is a leading early-stage venture capital firm that invests

in technology and life sciences companies. Boston Seed Capital funds from Boston to anywhere, and

alongside exceptional entrepreneurs and teams with innovative

breakthroughs.

“Playing fantasy sports should be fun and easy. Players are never “out of contention”. For those games involving financial stakes, players

can collect immediately.

Angel Street, www.angelstreetcapital.com,

based in Providence, RI, provides equity capital to early stage digital

media companies. The firm works closely with

the CEO of its portfolio companies to leverage contacts and assist in

business development.

4. At the

same time, we are seeking to maximize data capture and test engine

flexibility for use in customizing future offerings,” said Paul

Liberman, co-founder and CTO. Since 2000, Hub and its members have invested

more than $12 million in a broad range of sectors including financial

services, healthcare, water treatment, biotechnology, retail and

software as a service. DraftKings

provides fans with comprehensive access to fantasy sports by stripping

away the most time intensive and obtrusive elements of conventional

play, distilling the game to players’ favorite aspects of fantasy sports:

About Angel Street Capital:

About Atlas Venture:

2. For those

playing with stakes, DraftKings offers the highest payout and deposit

match percentages in the sector.

3. DraftKings handles the transactions and

distribution of proceeds, freeing up precious administrative time.

DraftKings offers daily fantasy sports play with online settlement,

providing gamers with a low inertia, high reward way to play. For more information visit www.draftkings.com.

About Boston Seed Capital:

“While fantasy sports have been around for 50 years, online daily

fantasy sports is much younger and growing rapidly. “With a

deep understanding of successful gaming franchises, and expertise in

customer acquisition and retention, the team at DraftKings has the

potential to quickly achieve the top position in this market.”

About DraftKings:

Boston Seed Capital provides seed stage funding for internet-enabled

businesses. For more information, please visit www.bostonseed.com.

About Hub Angels:

BOSTON–(BUSINESS WIRE)–DraftKings, an online fantasy sports startup, today announced that it

has closed a seed round of $1.4 million in a round led by Atlas Venture,

with participation from Boston Seed Capital, Hub Angels, Angel Street

Capital, and private angel investors. DraftKings

simplifies the process by handling financial transactions through its

site while collecting a commission on every stakes game.

With extensive backgrounds in marketing analytics, customer relationship

management, and technical development, the DraftKings start-up team is

poised to capitalize on the fast-growing daily fantasy sports market. Founded in 2010, the firm’s current portfolio

represents over 15 investments in a number of areas including mobile,

marketing, data, and financial platforms. On demand draft. A community at the ready to play. Our approach is

data-driven, but those themes underlay every customer-facing decision we

make,” said Matt Kalish, COO and co-founder.

6. “As sports fans, we understand that

the technology has to seamlessly support the way consumers intend to

play the games; our approach is overwhelmingly customer driven. Engagement remains high for the duration.

For the seasoned fantasy sports fan, DraftKings provides ready access to

their favorite games. All players have the option of playing

daily fantasy sports games involving stakes or for free. Daily payouts. No more hustling to round up a

league.

DraftKings is the online gaming destination where players engage in

daily fantasy sports competition for cash. Atlas Venture is currently investing from its eighth fund and

manages over $2 billion in committed capital. Onsite settlement. For the casual player, daily play and the clean

and streamlined user interface demystify the fantasy sports experience,

removing common hurdles to adoption. Since inception in 1980, we

have helped build over 350 companies in more than 16 different

countries. No more going an entire season

with a poorly performing team. Featuring daily fantasy sports

play and same-day settlement, DraftKings

makes playing fantasy sports simpler and faster for both seasoned and

casual players. The sector is ripe

for innovation via an analytical approach to marketing and customer

relationship management,” said Jason Robins, DraftKings CEO and

co-founder.

The Hub Angel Group invests across industry sectors as part of its

diversification strategy. For more information,

please visit www.atlasventure.com.

5. For more information, please visit www.hubangels.com.

“There’s an opportunity for a daily fantasy sports platform to dominate

the current field,” said Ryan Moore, partner at Atlas Venture

NFL Teams in Alphabetical Order

September 8, 2016 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in football betting

A lot of people plan Super Bowl Sunday way in advance, and ensure that they have no engagements or commitments that day. Also known as Super Bowl Sunday, it is a day on which maximum food is consumed, after Thanksgiving!

There are a total of 32 NFL teams, which have been divided into various zones of the American Football Conference (AFC) and the National Football Conference (NFC). It is now one of the richest sporting leagues in the world. Formerly known as the American Professional Football Association, and started in the year 1920, the group soon adapted itself to the National Football League in the year 1922. Here however, is something for those of you looking for such a list in alphabetical order.

NFL Team

Division

Arizona Cardinals

NFC West

Atlanta Falcons

NFC South

Baltimore Ravens

AFC North

Buffalo Bills

AFC East

Carolina Panthers

NFC South

Chicago Bears

NFC North

Cincinnati Bengals

AFC North

Cleveland Browns

AFC North

Dallas Cowboys

NFC East

Denver Broncos

AFC West

Detroit Lions

NFC East

Green Bay Packers

NFC North

Houston Texans

AFC South

Indianapolis Colts

AFC South

Jacksonville Jaguars

AFC South

Kansas City Chiefs

AFC West

Miami Dolphins

AFC East

Minnesota Vikings

NFC North

New England Patriots

AFC East

New Orleans Saints

NFC South

New York Giants

NFC East

New York Jets

AFC East

Oakland Raiders

AFC West

Philadelphia Eagles

NFC East

Pittsburgh Steelers

AFC North

San Diego Chargers

AFC West

San Francisco 49ers

NFC West

Seattle Seahawks

NFC West

St. Every year, the Super Bowl (the NFL championship game) is what excites football fans the most, with everyone looking forward to spending time together and watching the big game over some delicious food. Louis Rams

NFC West

Tampa Bay Buccaneers

NFC South

Tennessee Titans

AFC South

Washington Redskins

NFC East

As the biggest sports league that American football has ever seen, the craze about the NFL, its players, and the yearly Super Bowl only gets greater and wider. A very interesting fact is that, over 8 million pounds of guacamole is consumed on Super Bowl Sunday, and the sales of antacids increase drastically the next day! Such is the impact of the NFL, which seems to be only getting bigger with every passing year.. The AFC and NFC have four zones each-North, South, East, and West. As such, the total number of NFL teams is 32. Usually, you will always find a zone-wise distribution of these teams. Each zone has four teams, resulting in 16 teams under the AFC, and 16 under the NFC

Nevada sports betting could be a $5 billion industry

September 7, 2016 by Jonathan Giles | No Comments | Filed in betting, betting offshore

A month after the Super Bowl brought a crush of customers, the first four days of the NCAA Tournament did the same.

“People started to bet more because they could bet on their phone,” Holt said. “There is more access to everything, and I think the mobile app is the catalyst.”

But there are simple theories, too.

Advances in technology have helped the state catch up. It adds up to free advertising.

“We have a pretty sports-passionate culture,” Lawton said.

Bookmakers all over the city are getting noticeably more aggressive in beefing up betting menus — even on baseball, golf, hockey and mixed martial arts — to create a more competitive market. College basketball was a spectacular draw, too, with the 67-game NCAA Tournament pulling in an estimated $200 million in March and April. “People can’t get enough of it. A record $132.5 million was wagered in the state on Super Bowl 50 — up from $98.9 million three years ago. CG Technology and William Hill sports books led the way with mobile phone apps that changed the game when introduced five years ago.

The biggest events are booming. He co-hosts “The Las Vegas Sportsline” weekdays at 2 p.m. It’s a cheap date,” Vaccaro said. “On a macro level, the sports betting industry in Nevada never has been stronger. 19, and it has boosted the book’s handle instead of cannibalizing counter business.

In the late 1990s, Roxborough said, casinos were plotting to downsize sports books. You see them drinking Coronas all day,” Vaccaro said. CG Technology executives lobbied lawmakers and worked with the Gaming Control Board to get the bill passed, and the entity concept is expected to flourish for football season in the fall.

“I’ve seen from studies around the world that the mobile app builds business, there’s no question about it,” said Michael “Roxy” Roxborough, an oddsmaker who founded and operated Las Vegas Sports Consultants from 1982 to 1999. “But there is no one set reason the handle is going up.”

“The way things are trending, it’s possible,” Michael Lawton, senior research analyst for the Gaming Control Board, said of the $5 billion figure. “Las Vegas betting is stronger than ever. The sports betting handle in Nevada was $2.4 billion in 2006. “It’s a way for people outside of the state to get involved.”

Mobile phone apps and increased mainstream media coverage of sports betting are two major parts of the equation.

On many days, Vaccaro said, 40 percent of what is wagered with the South Point comes in on phone accounts. The Westgate unveiled a phone app Jan. It’s growing and growing and growing, and it’s going to get bigger.”

Offshore and underground bookmakers still dominate the action, with an estimated $400 billion bet illegally on sports in the U.S. And that was Super Bowl week.

Las Vegas Review-Journal sports betting columnist Matt Youmans can be reached at myoumans@reviewjournal.com or 702-387-2907. State gaming laws are being loosened to help pump up the handle, with entity betting being one progressive example.

Make no mistake, offshore books such as Pinnacle Sports in Curacao and BetCRIS in Costa Rica are still doing business on American soil, but the passage and enforcement of federal online anti-gambling laws have made it more difficult for the Average Joe to wager with a credit card in recent years. There are a lot of moving parts contributing to what we’re seeing.”

From his spot behind the counter at the South Point sports book, he watched amusement park-like lines form at each open window. But Nevada is gaining ground and significance, and a handle approaching $5 billion (with a win percentage in the 5.5 range) is no small thing to bookmakers and casino operators.. and Manny Pacquiao generated an estimated handle of $80 million in the state.

In the late 1970s, as Jimmy Vaccaro tells the story, there were times when ticket writers in Strip sports books would fall asleep behind the counter because there was so little action. each year. “In the long run, it could revolutionize sports betting in the state,” Holt said. “The world is so (bleeped) up, this is a great relief for three hours.”

“You go to these places for the Super Bowl and Final Four,” Roxborough said, “and it’s a very skewed demographic for people in their 20s.”

“I’m just flabbergasted,” Vaccaro said. “That made everyone else get an app, too, because they wanted to be competitive.”

“Every single big event has gone up, with record-breaking handles every year,” said Matthew Holt, vice president of CG Technology sports books. Follow on Twitter: @mattyoumans247

Last summer, Senate Bill 443 was signed into a law, authorizing business entities in Nevada to place wagers on behalf of investors from around the world. MGM Resorts, one of the last to make an impression on the market, is set to roll out a phone app later this month. The Westgate recently poured more than $12 million into the installation of state-of-the-art video boards and a renovated book, and Station Casinos spent millions on new video boards at Red Rock Resort.

Kornegay, Rood and Vaccaro have appeared on ESPN “SportsCenter” spots in the past year, televised signs of increased mainstream media coverage in all forums. On any given day, Twitter is flooded with sports betting-related posts, helping to attract younger bettors. on ESPN Radio (1100 AM). Even without it, book director Jay Rood said, “We’re ahead of last year on handle by 5 or 6 percent, so it continues to be strong.”

Kornegay added, “Just the popularity of sports betting, the entertainment value is second to none.”

Mobile apps, mainstream and social media interest, the expansion of in-game and proposition wagering, fantasy sports’ popularity, Las Vegas book upgrades, laws that caused a slight shift away from offshore wagering, and various economic and societal factors are creating a perfect storm surge for legal sports wagering in Nevada.

At the South Point, Vaccaro said, around 100 customers signed up for the mobile app during the NCAA Tournament, and the book’s tournament handle was up about $1.2 million over 2015.

“There are more women than I’ve ever seen, and they know the money line is different from the point spread. A year ago, boxing’s megafight between Floyd Mayweather Jr. Ten years ago, nobody cared about betting in Las Vegas.”

Vaccaro has seen almost everything there is to see during four decades as a Las Vegas bookmaker. It topped $3 billion for the first time in 2012, escalated to $4.2 billion last year and is projected to approach $5 billion in 2016.

“The mobile app is just so popular,” Westgate sports book director Jay Kornegay said “The counter handle has not suffered, either.”

It’s tough to find a book without a mobile app. But that trend has reversed. The Nevada handle of $2.4 billion in 1995 remained flat for more than a decade while offshore books owned the market.

Times have changed in many eye-opening ways in the past five years, and, of course, since the ’70s.

“You are seeing a majority of locals betting on phone apps, and they come to your casino to watch the games. Still, he was blown away in February, and then blown away again in March.

He’s not exaggerating, either